© Photo : (C)Zosia Rostomian, Nic Ross, Springel et al, Virgo Consortium, Max Planck Institute for AstrophysicsСвет of distant quasars that passes through the accumulation of hydrogen on the way to the Ground© Photo : (C)Zosia Rostomian, Nic Ross, Springel et al, Virgo Consortium, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
A map of the distribution of supermassive black holes in the Universe helped astronomers to prove that dark energy exists and that it causes space to expand even faster, according to a paper published in the journal MNRAS.
«Now we understand how gravity works, but some of the questions of the Universe such as the dark energy remain a mystery to us. We have been wish to understand what it is, and projects such as eBOSS, help us to gradually build our knowledge about the nature of the Universe,» said William Percival (William Percival) from Portsmouth University (UK).
The project BOSS is part of the «big» Kaunasskogo digital sky survey (SDSS), since the middle of 2008. With the help of scientists are trying to find the so-called baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) — «echoes» the birth of the Universe in the form of acoustic waves, for which there was heterogeneity in the distribution of matter that gave birth to modern galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
To do this, astronomers studying the spectrum of quasars, the most ancient, vibrant and large black holes in the centers of distant galaxies, watching as their light interacted with gas clouds in the spaces between the threads of the «web Universe» on the way to the Ground. Comparing the differences in how the light changed in the course of these journeys from the relatively distant and nearby galaxies, scientists are tracking how fast the universe was expanding, and check whether this process is equally in its different parts.
The first results BOSS was published four years ago. Following 60 thousands of black holes, the most distant of which were at a distance of 11.5 billion light years from Earth, scientists have not found differences between modern theoretical ideas about the properties of dark energy and the fact that they are observed in the spectra of these quasars.
On the other hand, similar differences were recently found in the observations relatively close to us and a supernova «pairs» of distant quasars. It turned out that today the universe is expanding surprisingly quickly — much faster than say the theory and calculations on the basis of observations of the microwave «echo» of the Big Bang using a telescope «Planck».
This has led many physicists to doubt the existence of dark energy and the expansion of the Universe with acceleration. Recently, supporters and opponents of the «inflationary theory» has come into open dispute on the pages of scientific journals and popular science publications.
For example, opponents of the expansion of the Universe called the idea unscientific, and its supporters accuse opponents of methodological shortcomings. From 33 of the leading cosmologists in the world, including Russians Andrei Linde, published last week a letter responding to the criticism of skeptics.
Percival and his colleagues, including astrophysics from the Institute of nuclear research of the RAS in Moscow, added fuel to the fire by publishing the new data of the review BOSS, which now includes more than 176 thousand of galaxies and their black holes, remote at a distance of 13 million light-years from Earth. In fact, they managed to build a three-dimensional map of galaxies and the matter between them in the cube dimensions are 12 x 12 x 12 billion light-years.
New survey data how to tell astrophysics, broadly in line with the classical model of the Universe, including dark matter and dark energy. The rate of expansion of the Universe in it, on the other hand, is closer to the value «Bar» than to a supernova, making the discrepancies even more strange and interesting.
Further increase in the number of quasars and the discovery of more distant objects, as I hope the participants will help to validate the results of the «Plank» and understand which of the two speeds of expansion of the Universe is correct and how it involves dark energy.