Physics from MIPT create a quantum «Perpetuum mobile» of the second kind

© Photo : Mitigate Lesovik and Andrey LebedevPhysics from MIPT create a quantum «Perpetuum mobile» of the second kind© Photo : MIPT

Russian scientists have found a way to create a quantum device, «violate» the second law of thermodynamics and with efficiency, in fact, equal to 100%, according to a paper published in the journal Physics Review A.

«Any heat engine consists of a heater, which actually is a source of energy, and the refrigerator, with the cooling of the working fluid of the engine. The refrigerator lowers the entropy of the engine and thus unavoidably wasting part of the thermal energy received from heater. That is why efficiency of heat engine can never reach 100%», — says Andrey Lebedev, employee of the Technical University of Zurich and MIPT Dolgoprudny.

One of the foundations of modern physics and cosmology is the concept of the so-called «arrow of time» – the postulate that time in our Universe moves only in one direction, from past to future. In other words, we move through four-dimensional space only in one direction along the time axis, and «rewind» time back is impossible.

From the point of view of physics it is shown that over time, the disorder, the entropy of the Universe, a condition that scientists call entropy, increases steadily. For example, this process is manifested in the fact how the condition of the energy of the Universe. This principle, which scientists often call the «second law of thermodynamics», is considered inviolable rule governing the life of the whole Universe at all levels.

This idea gave scientists the idea that such quantum «demons» can be used to create a machine whose efficiency is equal 100%. For its development, scientists propose to use two pairs of qubits, the basic computational modules and memory of quantum computers interconnected on a quantum level.

The qubits in the «engine of the man and his colleagues» perform two roles – they absorb heat and allow you to «teleport» extra entropy outside the system, playing the role of Maxwell’s demon. This allows such device to actually reach a state equivalent to a perpetual motion machine of the second kind.

Actually, of course, this device is not «perpetual motion» – explains the man, his work must be constantly updated «demonic» qubits, cleansing the system from entropy, cooling them in a special way. On the other hand, it is done outside of the «engine» that suggests that «formally» the second law of thermodynamics is still broken inside of him.

Now the man and his colleagues are engaged in the implementation of this idea in practice, creating such a «perpetual motion» on the basis of superconducting qubits — transmenu.