Biologists have discovered new genes «syndrome matershinnik»

© Fotolia / Dan RaceУченый with a model DNA in a test tubeBiologists have discovered new genes «syndrome matershinnik»© Fotolia / Dan Race

Biologists from Russia and several foreign countries have found that Tourette’s syndrome can develop when a serious of mutations in two genes that control «stickiness» of the surface of nerve cells, according to a paper published in the journal Neuron.

«Gradually, brick by brick, we collect information about the genetic architecture of Tourette’s syndrome. The article made an important step in this direction, as statistically established, what changes in these genes are associated with predisposition to the disease. This gives the opportunity for diagnosis. The next step is to understand what changes in the cells and tissues result of violation was found in the genes,» says Vasily Ramenskiy, a geneticist from MIPT, whose word brings the press service of the University.

Tourette’s syndrome is one of the most widely known, but almost not been studied diseases of the nervous system that is transmitted genetically. Carriers of this syndrome do not differ from ordinary people in their behavior and intelligence, but their body spontaneously periodically performs repetitive movements, themselves and their owners, in some cases, shouting obscenities.

As scholars have noted, Tourette’s syndrome for a long time was considered a rare disease, but recent genetic studies show that they are actually suffering, though in a less pronounced form, every hundredth and every thousandth child is an adult. At the moment there is no understanding of how it arises, nor the methods of combating it.

Ramenskaya and a large team of international scientists came close to opening the answer to this question by studying the genomes of about 2.5 thousand carriers of Tourette’s syndrome from different countries of Europe and about four thousand healthy people.

Comparing the sets of small and large mutations in genes related to nervous system, scientists hoped to find those sites of DNA damage or changes in which contribute to the development of Tourette’s syndrome.

As shown by the comparison in the DNA of media Tourette’s syndrome most commonly seen two types of large enough damage DNA deletion of the gene NRXN1 and duplication of some regions in the CNTN6 gene. Both of these areas of DNA responsible for the formation of connections between nerve cells and control the «stickiness» of the surface.

While biologists don’t know exactly how damage in these genes lead to the development of Tourette’s syndrome, but mutations in the NRXN1 gene have already been associated with the development of schizophrenia, and «typos» in CNTN6 different forms of autism. Further study of these genes, as hopes of Ramenskoe, will help us to understand how they relate to the development of Tourette’s syndrome and how it can be treated.

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