Astronomers have discovered the main factory of antimatter in the Galaxy

© Photo : David A. Aguilar (CfA)white dwarf System J0651 the eyes of the artistAstronomers have discovered the main factory of antimatter in the Galaxy© Photo : David A. Aguilar (CfA)

. The whole antimatter Galaxies, traces of whose decays are constantly fixed space telescopes, NASA, may occur during the supernova explosions that occur as a result of the mergers of white dwarfs, according to a paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy.

«These observations allowed us to reveal the secrets of the most unknown parts of the milky Way, home to the oldest stars. When a pair of white dwarfs closer together too strongly, the larger the star «breaks» part of the matter from its smaller companion and turns into a thermonuclear bomb, whose explosion produces virtually the entire anti-matter Galaxy», explains Roland Crocker (Roland Crocker) from the Australian National University in Canberra.

When the Soviet and American astronomers launched the first space telescopes into Earth orbit, the first observations of the Galaxy in gamma and x-rays revealed the big surprise. It turned out that the Central part of the milky Way produced large quantities of high-energy photons, which can only occur during the decay of antimatter particles.

The search for sources of this material have been conducted for almost 50 years with varying degrees of success. Their role is now claimed by two objects – the «thermonuclear» supernovae of the first type, and corporarive black holes-the microquasars. In the first case, antimatter is the result of the formation of isotopes of certain elements decaying into lighter nuclei and positrons, and the second in the result of collision of particles of light and their transformation into antimatter.

As said Crocker, a long search for traces of the formation of antimatter, and under a different scenario, in fact, to no avail. The number of known microquasars at the galactic center is extremely small – we know only four such sites, and in the case of a supernova, the scientists could not find a plausible mechanism of its birth. Therefore, some astronomers now believe that antimatter is occurring in more exotic ways as a result of the collapse of dark matter or in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole Sgr A*.

Team Crocker have found a way out of this situation, following which elements occur in supernova explosions of the first type. Such outbreaks, as they say scientists, the result of merging pairs of white dwarfs, merger of matter, which leads to a full thermonuclear explosion, after which the star does not remain even a trace.

The temperature inside the depths of such dwarfs reach such high values during the explosion that they formed virtually the whole periodic table, including unstable elements whose collapse leads to the formation not only of matter but of antimatter. They say you scientists are Nickel-56, titanium-44 and aluminum-26.

After analyzing how arise and destroy these elements, Crocker and his colleagues concluded that titanium-44 is the ideal candidate for the role of the main source of antimatter in the Galaxy. The amount and frequency of collapse, as the scientists explain, very accurately fit into the amount of antimatter in the center of the milky Way, and do it, the particles arising from the decay of nuclei of titanium-44 will be accelerated to the «right» speeds.

In the past, according to Crocker, the titanium-44 was not considered a candidate for the role of «main supplier» of antimatter for the reason that his main source was considered normal supernovae resulting from gravitational collapse of large stars that have exhausted their supplies of hydrogen and helium. They produce about four times less than titanium-44 than it is necessary to explain the presence of antimatter in the core of the milky Way.

This problem can be solved, as shown by calculations of scientists, if the main source of titanium will be the supernova of the first type arising from the merger of two different white dwarfs, one of which will consist almost entirely of helium, and then carbon and oxygen. Such explosions, as shown by observations of supernovae are relatively rare, occurring approximately once in 500 years, and they produce titanium-44 should be sufficient to cover this deficiency.