© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Palaniyappan flying film in space© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyanina
For the entire history of space exploration in different high earth orbit was sent 6 000 spacecraft. Some of them disbanded, others exploded, and others – and continue to float in zero gravity, being long incapacitated. Once these «things» was sent down the most important data, and now they are called just space junk. Any debris, if you do not monitor how and where it stack up after a while begins to interfere with the life of surrounding objects. In the case of space debris that can threaten working satellites.At the moment orbiting the earth rotates 24 000 space objects larger than 10 centimeters and, presumably, more than 600,000 small fragments. Satellites operating in orbit around 1200, the rest is space junk. It flies with great speed — kilometers per second. If such a small fragment would crash into the satellite — it will be like a head-on collision of two huge machines at a speed of 60 km/h. How to prevent such collisions? It only remains to bring all these objects to the directory and follow each individually. And doing it in the Center of gathering and processing information on the objects of anthropogenic origin (CSITA) of the Russian Academy of Sciences — FANO at the Ballistic center of the Institute of applied mathematics named after M. V. Keldysh. In the directory of scholars is now about 5,000 objects in high-earth orbits, which are being closely monitored. In order to uniformly observe all of the geostationary orbit, was deployed a huge network of observatories and telescopes of the individual on all continents of the Earth.
© IPM im.M.In.Kildysart observatories of the RAS CSITO© IPM im.M.In.Kildysart observatories CSITO wounds
Scientists Ballistic center IPM named after M. V. Keldysh of RAS-FANO now have the opportunity to collect measurement information on space objects in geostationary (36 000 km above the Earth) and highly elliptical orbits (perigee in low orbit and the apogee to 40,000 km), as well as circular orbits, semi-diurnal type GLONASS-GPS (21 000km).
© IPM im.M.In.Caldiatech CSITO RAS© IPM im.M.In.Caldiatech CSITO wounds
Thanks to these observations, there appeared information about a new class of objects with remarkable characteristics: a very small mass and vast area. Most likely it is some flying footage that is either formed by the destruction of satellites and rocket stages or even just separating from the working spacecraft. The result is a sort of «artificial natural» solar sails: a device that uses motion solar light pressure.
© NASAСолнечный sail© NASAСолнечный sail
Ballistic scientists center for more than 10 years have the ability to track ballistic evolution of such objects, some of which are under the influence of the pressure of sunlight then go to geostationary orbit, then come back.
Explains Igor Molotov, head of the project coordination unit of ncoi FSA IPM im. M. V. Keldysh RAS:
«These tapes are of interest because they are highly variable Shine. Sometimes such objects are opened on a small telescope and large they are not visible. Some observatories have several telescopes of various sizes, such as the Crimean. They got a telescope, 2,6 m – very large and small — 22 cm And now they see this tape on a 22 cm telescope, and when moving to the 2.6 m telescope, in order to carry out the photometric observations can help to understand what material it is, like at all. Go back 22cm — see! Probably this happened because the film was turned to the Ground with his edge and lost the Shine.»
Rare samples of space debris can also be very large satellites and vehicles that carry onboard radioactive substances. Says Victor Voropaev, a leading engineer, IPM im. M. V. Keldysh RAS:
«It was an example of the fall of the satellite on canadian territory in 1977. It was our Soviet satellite «Cosmos-954″ with nuclear power unit on Board, which didn’t work, the system of disposal to a burial orbit, and eventually radioactive parts fell in the North-Western part of Canada. Not so long ago in the orbit of burial have not been partial destruction of the old satellites with the release of the coolant. Now the leading space countries, designs for satellites that can determine the level of radiation from these fragments.»
A separate scientific direction of the Ballistic center KIAM named after M. V. Keldysh– the study of the behavior of groups of fragments of space debris generated by the one destroyed by a satellite or a rocket stage: how they behave over time? These formations called «cloud fragments». They can also be attributed to a particularly interesting objects of space debris. Some studies show that they fold into some torus (the geometric solid formed by rotating a circle around it and disjoint lying in the same plane with it straight. The approximate shape of a torus is a lifeline bagel).
© IPM im. M. V. Kildysart number of different space objects in directories © IPM im. M. V. Kildysart number of different space objects in the directory
The number of different groups of objects increases every year, both Russian and U.S. bases. Since each such object could be a threat to working satellites, trajectories, and time of convergence is calculated, and then this information is provided to the operator. But unfortunately, not every modern satellites allow for maneuvering.