How to quit Smoking in a scientific way?

© Illustration RIA Novosti . Alina Palanisamy no tobacco dayHow to quit Smoking in a scientific way?© Illustration RIA Novosti . Alina Polyanina

Today is world no tobacco day. The problem of Smoking cessation is particularly relevant for Russia, because at the moment we are in second place in the world (after China) in the absolute number of cigarettes smoked. We smoke up almost half of the adult population, with 60% of smokers plan to quit this bad habit soon. To help them ready to the modern science with all its knowledge about tobacco dependence.

Tobacco (or nicotine) dependence in major international classifications of diseases listed as a separate disorder. According to the who, cigarettes and Tabacalera products designed to support the addiction at the expense of pharmacologically active components. Chief among them, of course, is nicotine. During the Smoking part of nicotine enters the human respiratory tract, then along with the blood moves to the heart and brain. Nicotine acts on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which activate a chain of emissions of different substances: adrenaline, glucose from the liver and dopamine — the hormone that causes pleasure.

It is not surprising that this disorder along with its psychological and behavioral factors traditionally considered by the addiction. In addition, it is also a challenge for pulmonology — as is the destruction of the lungs.

Different aspects of attraction to tobacco – from the purely physical to the psychosocial – do the overall clinical picture is complex. Widely known abstinence syndrome (differently — «the syndrome») as well as symptoms of the change of tolerance (susceptibility) of an organism to tobacco. But the main criterion is «tobacco dependence» is a syndrome of pathological craving for tobacco. It occurs a few years after the beginning of systematic Smoking. This syndrome includes three components: ideational (constant and painful view of the tobacco in the thoughts and images), vegetative-vascular (cough, dry mouth, dizziness) and neurotic (fatigue, exhaustion, insomnia).

To quit Smoking «scientifically», one must first understand at what point nicotine dependence and Smoking related diseases is a smoker, and then decide on the methods of struggle. Diagnosis today can determine the degree of nicotine addiction, content in the exhaled air of carbon monoxide, the permeability of the bronchi and the vascular permeability.

In the diagnosis of a range of modern technical means and ordinary tests. For example, using a urine test to measure the level of concentration of the nicotine metabolites. It is necessary to plan for future replacement therapy, which involves the permanent reduction of the level of concentration.

© Photo : MedicalСО Micro-monitor for analysis of the level of carbon monoxide Micro Medical MicroCOHow to quit Smoking in a scientific way?© Photo : MedicalСО Micro-monitor for analysis of the level of carbon monoxide Micro Medical MicroCO

To determine the level of carbon monoxide in exhaled air is used CO monitor. At a high level starts flashing red light: this means that the reduction of oxygen in exhaled air is so great that the patient already has clear physiological disorders.

To determine the level of patency of the bronchi is used spironolacton (spirograph, spirometer).

© Fotolia / The Sherry WordspeakerHow to quit Smoking in a scientific way?© Fotolia / Sherry Wordspeaker

This device shows the volume of inhaled and exhaled air, and the velocity of its passage to the lungs via the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi. During the study, the person blows into a tube with electronic sensors that react to the rate of passage of exhaled air and record its volume. Then the data from the sensors are recorded on a special tape in the form of a graph. Thus, with this device it is possible to determine the «age of light», which in the smoker is usually well above his own age.

The degree of nicotine addiction determined using the test Fagerstrom. It was developed by Swedish doctor Karl Pagestream — one of the leading experts on the effects of Smoking on the body. This test includes six questions about the time and intensity of sessions of Smoking.

© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyaminates FagerstromHow to quit Smoking in a scientific way?© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyaminates Fagerstrom

After you have answered the questions evaluated the degree of nicotine addiction. If you have received from zero to three points can quit Smoking on their own, focusing on psychological factors. If it turns out from four to five — you have to use drugs to replace the nicotine. But the dependence on the six points is estimated as high. In this case it is better to contact the laboratory for Smoking cessation, where your body is examined in more detail and will develop an individual treatment plan.