The expert spoke about the possibilities of nuclear medicine

© Russian Academy of nexteven KalmyksThe expert spoke about the possibilities of nuclear medicine© Russian Academy of Sciences

Every year on the third Sunday of June in Russia marks day of the doctor. The holiday was established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Light of the USSR from October 1, 1980, almost at the same time, when official status was obtained by nuclear medicine is a separate branch of clinical medicine. About the possibilities of nuclear medicine RIA «Science» said Stepan N. Kalmykov — the scientist-radiochemist, corresponding the doctor of chemical Sciences, Professor and corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
Is a modern high-tech direction that combines many Sciences, and increasingly progresses (the volume of global markets billions of dollars). Firstly, nuclear medicine can diagnose many serious diseases at very early stages. Not only cancer, but also neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s) and cardiovascular disease. Secondly, using nuclear medicine to create drugs that differ from more traditional techniques (such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy), are targeted and locally. That is, it provides maximum exposure to the lesion, e.g. a tumor.

We have one of the most powerful linear accelerator is located in Troitsk, on the basis of the Institute for nuclear research RAS (600 MeV). These unique accelerators – units all over the world: two in USA, one in France, South Africa and South Korea. Unlike cyclotrons, INR RAS linear accelerator.
Besides, already prepared for the first high-energy cyclotron in the country. It took the specialists of Kurchatov Institute, they promised to fully provide our country with medical radionuclides. For this project, the finish line stays around another year or two. In fact, the cyclotron itself is ready – just have to finalize everything and settle the nuances of an organizational nature.
— What else can you do possessing nuclear medicine?
— It is now very important, selection of those molecules that are able to perform targeted delivery of drugs and to deal effectively with the pathologies. On the other hand, we learn a lot and, for example, the brain, the relationship of bodies on the biochemical behavior of different molecules. It may «play out» in two ways: either to bring the science to laboratory synthesis of something «nature-like» (remember nanomedicine) or adapt what already exists in a living organism. These areas are developing very rapidly.
— Are there any breakthroughs in terms of selection of molecules?
— Chemical faculty of Moscow state University actively work with nanoparticles and peptide drugs. Biological faculty of Moscow state University and Institute of gene biology of RAS are working together with complex protein structures. Ahead of the rest, we can say, the development of the so-called «modular nanotransporters». Thanks to them, recognized not only the affected organ, but a single cell. And shipping isn’t even just inside the cell, and directly into her core. Thus, these transporters near the core overharvesting destroy the cell due to single acts of radioactive decay. And, as you can see, a similar development aimed at combating the most severe, incurable cancers.

CC BY-SA 4.0 / NIPK Electron Co. / Complex of Isotope Diagnostics/Cropped a photoКомплекс isotope diagnostics SPECT-systemThe expert spoke about the possibilities of nuclear medicineCC BY-SA 4.0 / NIPK Electron Co. / Complex of Isotope Diagnostics/Cropped a photoКомплекс isotope diagnostics SPECT-system

— What can you say about the prospects of radioisotope diagnosis?
Here are the two basic methods PET and single photon imaging. First and most commonly used fluorine-18. The period of its radioactive half-life (109 minutes) imposes certain restrictions, because the drugs we have to synthesize very quickly. Therefore, it is very important to other non-traditional radiators in addition to fluorine, with a long half-life (at least hours, days). And they are important because many pathological processes are slow pharmacokinetics: that is, they need a long time to accumulate in the lesion. So when we go from simple molecules containing fluorine-18 to other drugs (e.g. monoclonal antibodies), we are significantly expanding the list of pathologies with which to cope.