Scientists have uncovered an unexpectedly strong role of mutations in the human body

© Fotolia / Dan RaceУченый with a model DNA in a test tubeScientists have uncovered an unexpectedly strong role of mutations in the human body© Fotolia / Dan Race

. Small differences in DNA structure in different people unexpectedly strongly influence the design of proteins and their work, the consequences of which had extremely underestimated, say biologists in an article published in the journal Scientific Reports.

«Until now, almost all of us believed that these variations do not have a significant effect on the protein. These variations can change our perception of smells or predisposition to a response to different pathogens. None of these changes can not be noticed in everyday life, but in some situations they can become critical, for example, if you ingested drugs or psychoactive substances,» says Burkhard Rost (Burkhard Rost) from the Technological University of Munich (Germany).

Genetic studies of the last two decades show that no one person, even identical twins, is not a complete DNA copy of someone else. The genetic material of the children contains, as a rule, two new mutations in comparison with the device of the genome of their parents, and the average unrelated people differ by 10-20 thousand unique «typos» in the structure of their genes.

Moreover, five years ago American geneticists have discovered while researching the genome «reprogrammed» skin cells that the genomes of virtually all of them differ from each other and contain numerous mutations, repetitions, and other variations in the structure of DNA.

Most of these changes, despite their large numbers, are extremely rare and they do not change the structure and principles of protein encoded by such a «mutated» genes. Therefore, the scientists paid little attention to how they change the operation of individual proteins and associated cellular systems.

The growth and his colleagues have filled this gap in molecular biology, analyzing approximately 60 thousand samples of blood taken from people from different countries, social and racial groups. In total, the researchers analyzed tens of thousands of single-letter «typo» in their genes. These data biologists used to create artificial intelligence that can predict how changes in the proteins after the appearance of such small mutations.

These calculations led to very unexpected results – more than half of small mutations in almost all human proteins resulted in quite noticeable changes in their three-dimensional structure and principles of operation.

Each such change will itself be a weak influence on the work of the body and will not be unambiguously good or bad. However, their cumulative effect, the combination of all such «typos» in the genes, will make the body of each person is essentially unique thing.

It is, as scientists believe, should be considered when developing techniques for personalized medicine and research on the role and function of various proteins and genes in our body cells, the device and the nature of the work which can vary greatly for different individuals.