Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition

© Press-service of REU them. Plehanovskaya ZolotovZolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© Press-service of REU them. Plekhanov

When purchasing jewelry, consumers rightly expect that the product will not only attractive in appearance but also quality, relevant declared value. At the same time, the market often and fake products. Is it possible to protect yourself from purchasing counterfeit? Today established the authenticity of jewelry? About it the correspondent of the project «Social Navigator» MIA «Russia today» said associate Professor of the Department of commodity science and commodity examination of the Russian economic University. G. V. Plekhanova Svetlana Zolotova.

All counterfeits can be divided into three categories: a fake metal, fake jewelry, insets (this term designated natural minerals, pearls, amber, synthetically grown crystals and artificial materials, such as glass, in appearance like any stones), as well as providing jewelry for decoration famous brand. Most often in the Russian market there are fake jewelry insert.Typical forgery: any cheat for your money© RIA Novostiukraine stones most often counterfeited in three ways. First, the fraud issue semiprecious and ornamental stones for gemstone (rhinestone for a diamond, emerald for emerald, spinel is for ruby). Second, instead of gems sell artificial or synthetic (cubic Zirconia and silicon carbide are issued for diamonds, synthetic corundum natural sapphire, glass for rhinestone). A third method of cheating is more subtle is the overestimation of the expert characteristics of the stone.

In the picture: rhinestone with 57 facets cut classic brilliant cut.

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostiukraine stones most often counterfeited in three ways. First, the fraud issue semiprecious and ornamental stones for gemstone (rhinestone for a diamond, emerald for emerald, spinel is for ruby). Second, instead of gems sell artificial or synthetic (cubic Zirconia and silicon carbide are issued for diamonds, synthetic corundum natural sapphire, glass for rhinestone). A third method of cheating is more subtle is the overestimation of the expert characteristics of the stone.

In the picture: rhinestone with 57 facets cut classic brilliant cut.

© RIA Novostiall to assess the authenticity or market value of stone product in many cases impossible, so before making an expensive purchase it is better to consult specialists. They will conduct research, including using laboratory methods.

The picture shows the authentication of diamonds by measuring their thermal conductivity at a special detector. Diamonds of fancy colors are rare in nature.

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostiall to assess the authenticity or market value of stone product in many cases impossible, so before making an expensive purchase it is better to consult specialists. They will conduct research, including using laboratory methods.

The picture shows the authentication of diamonds by measuring their thermal conductivity at a special detector. Diamonds of fancy colors are rare in nature.

© RIA Novosti jewelry can be replaced by separate parts. For example, the chains can be falsified some links to the fake chains and pendants can be attached locks of real gold with real stamps.

In the picture of the chain of the various nettings are part of a collection of silver jewelry REU them. Plekhanov.

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti jewelry can be replaced by separate parts. For example, the chains can be falsified some links to the fake chains and pendants can be attached locks of real gold with real stamps.

In the picture of the chain of the various nettings are part of a collection of silver jewelry REU them. Plekhanov.

© RIA Novosti / Yuri to Sombrerete in Photobacterium precious metal in the product can be determined only by laboratory methods. The presence of the state assay mark is a guarantee of authenticity, but, nevertheless, there are also fake brands.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti / Yuri to Sombrerete in Photobacterium precious metal in the product can be determined only by laboratory methods. The presence of the state assay mark is a guarantee of authenticity, but, nevertheless, there are also fake brands.© RIA to Novoslobodskay the whole skin is quite difficult due to the difference in anatomy of animals. But the counterfeits are found in the finished product. The less valuable the skin is given for skin more valuable. For example, the column issue for the mink, which is considerably more expensive. Most often used for rigging dyeing, nip (removal of top hair), cut and grinding the leather fabric.

The picture shows the hide column (light color) and the skin of mink (dark color).

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA to Novoslobodskay the whole skin is quite difficult due to the difference in anatomy of animals. But the counterfeits are found in the finished product. The less valuable the skin is given for skin more valuable. For example, the column issue for the mink, which is considerably more expensive. Most often used for rigging dyeing, nip (removal of top hair), cut and grinding the leather fabric.

The picture shows the hide column (light color) and the skin of mink (dark color).

© RIA Novostirussia counterfeit protection of fur – the acquisition of whole skins and sewing fur products to order. When buying fur of different animals can be distinguished visually. For example, hair on the skin of a shorn and bleached beaver more long and thick than the skin sheared mink, whose fur is softer and shorter, and the leather fabric is thinner and more plastic.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostirussia counterfeit protection of fur – the acquisition of whole skins and sewing fur products to order. When buying fur of different animals can be distinguished visually. For example, hair on the skin of a shorn and bleached beaver more long and thick than the skin sheared mink, whose fur is softer and shorter, and the leather fabric is thinner and more plastic.© RIA Novostinearly common way of forgery of products made of leather – imitation leather made of expensive skins. With a high-quality embossed product from cattle hides can quite accurately mimic the skin of a crocodile, snake or Stingray. Genuine leather can also be replaced with artificial or composite (material made of pressed leather waste: trimmings, shavings, flour).

In the picture: genuine leather electric ray (Burgundy), top simulation – embossed leather from the skins of cattle.

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostinearly common way of forgery of products made of leather – imitation leather made of expensive skins. With a high-quality embossed product from cattle hides can quite accurately mimic the skin of a crocodile, snake or Stingray. Genuine leather can also be replaced with artificial or composite (material made of pressed leather waste: trimmings, shavings, flour).

In the picture: genuine leather electric ray (Burgundy), top simulation – embossed leather from the skins of cattle.

© RIA Novosti simple cases, forgery is possible to identify visually. For example, the texture of snake skin is that the scales are «overlapping», and imitation – «joint to joint». More skilled forgeries are detected by examination: a cross-section of the skin will show its structure, allowing to determine the origin of the material.

In the picture: dark green skin fragment – frog (original), light green piece of leather – water snake (original).

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti simple cases, forgery is possible to identify visually. For example, the texture of snake skin is that the scales are «overlapping», and imitation – «joint to joint». More skilled forgeries are detected by examination: a cross-section of the skin will show its structure, allowing to determine the origin of the material.

In the picture: dark green skin fragment – frog (original), light green piece of leather – water snake (original).

© RIA Novosti / Ekaterina Chesnokova the production of fake footwear is often used primitive fraud. More cheap velour issued for expensive suede, which easily stands rain and snow, but is almost never used for mass production of very small thickness, low strength and high cost. Main insole made of genuine leather can replace the cardboard.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti / Ekaterina Chesnokova the production of fake footwear is often used primitive fraud. More cheap velour issued for expensive suede, which easily stands rain and snow, but is almost never used for mass production of very small thickness, low strength and high cost. Main insole made of genuine leather can replace the cardboard.© RIA Novostinearly rough way counterfeit wine results for wine colored flavored alcohol solution. Chaptalization is a common wine – improving quality of wine by using podtachivaniya of the grape juice and reduce the acidity of comminuted chalk.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostinearly rough way counterfeit wine results for wine colored flavored alcohol solution. Chaptalization is a common wine – improving quality of wine by using podtachivaniya of the grape juice and reduce the acidity of comminuted chalk.© RIA Novosti other cases table wines issued by wines of protected geographical indications and wines of protected appellations of origin (Russian, Italian or French).Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti other cases table wines issued by wines of protected geographical indications and wines of protected appellations of origin (Russian, Italian or French).© RIA of Novotony slim look of falsification of wine – sales of wine one year under the harvest another year. Gross falsification of wines can be recognized visually (by the presence or absence of luster, color and transparency), organoleptic (taste and smell), thin – through chemical analysis.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA of Novotony slim look of falsification of wine – sales of wine one year under the harvest another year. Gross falsification of wines can be recognized visually (by the presence or absence of luster, color and transparency), organoleptic (taste and smell), thin – through chemical analysis.© RIA Novosti / Pavel to Listenpreise in fotosexverhalen dangerous way of falsification of alcoholic beverages – the use of methyl alcohol instead of ethyl. Common overstatement of age (substitution of alcohols unseasoned), a fake exposure (the addition of extracts), the replacement of malt spirit grain.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti / Pavel to Listenpreise in fotosexverhalen dangerous way of falsification of alcoholic beverages – the use of methyl alcohol instead of ethyl. Common overstatement of age (substitution of alcohols unseasoned), a fake exposure (the addition of extracts), the replacement of malt spirit grain.© RIA Novostinearly crude forgery can be identified by the appearance of the bottle (label, glass, etc.), more slim – to taste and smell. Most high-quality counterfeits can be detected only sophisticated laboratory analysis.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostinearly crude forgery can be identified by the appearance of the bottle (label, glass, etc.), more slim – to taste and smell. Most high-quality counterfeits can be detected only sophisticated laboratory analysis.© RIA Novosti / Igor Taraborrelli in photobunny widespread way of rigging a coffee the results of Robusta over Arabica. Such fakes on the market up to a quarter of the total amount of sold coffee. Even under a very well-known brands can sell coffee, which does not match the declared on the label (under the guise of coffee premium coffee sell even not the first, and second grade).Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti / Igor Taraborrelli in photobunny widespread way of rigging a coffee the results of Robusta over Arabica. Such fakes on the market up to a quarter of the total amount of sold coffee. Even under a very well-known brands can sell coffee, which does not match the declared on the label (under the guise of coffee premium coffee sell even not the first, and second grade).© RIA Novastyle coffee bean to determine the discrepancies naked eye: the high-quality Arabica grains must be of the same size and shape, identical in color, on every hundred grams of beans should be no more than 6% of broken grains and grain fragments. For pre-ground coffee may require chemical analysis (e.g. by chromatography method).Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novastyle coffee bean to determine the discrepancies naked eye: the high-quality Arabica grains must be of the same size and shape, identical in color, on every hundred grams of beans should be no more than 6% of broken grains and grain fragments. For pre-ground coffee may require chemical analysis (e.g. by chromatography method).© RIA Novostieu to experts, up to 30% of all perfumery products in Russia are counterfeit. Fake almost all kinds of perfumes and cosmetics.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostieu to experts, up to 30% of all perfumery products in Russia are counterfeit. Fake almost all kinds of perfumes and cosmetics.© RIA Novostimoscow fakes are very diverse: from the production of the counterfeit product (such product not in product line of the brand) and of coarse forgery (box and bottle are made of low quality materials that do not meet the original product) to counterfeit high-level, almost indistinguishable from the original.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostimoscow fakes are very diverse: from the production of the counterfeit product (such product not in product line of the brand) and of coarse forgery (box and bottle are made of low quality materials that do not meet the original product) to counterfeit high-level, almost indistinguishable from the original.© RIA Novostidue the adulteration of meat products (for example, replacing beef with Buffalo meat, carcass rabbit carcass cats) often reveal when crossing the border customs area or in the uncontrolled areas of trade (e.g., the roadside natural markets). Small and unscrupulous manufacturers give the meat-containing products and their analogues for meat.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostidue the adulteration of meat products (for example, replacing beef with Buffalo meat, carcass rabbit carcass cats) often reveal when crossing the border customs area or in the uncontrolled areas of trade (e.g., the roadside natural markets). Small and unscrupulous manufacturers give the meat-containing products and their analogues for meat.© RIA Novostidue fresh meat to fake hard – every kind of meat has its specific structure and color. And detect fraud in the finished products (sausages, frankfurters, etc.) often requires laboratory studies (in particular, tissue identification by ultrasound).Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostidue fresh meat to fake hard – every kind of meat has its specific structure and color. And detect fraud in the finished products (sausages, frankfurters, etc.) often requires laboratory studies (in particular, tissue identification by ultrasound).© RIA Novosti / Alexander Krauledat in fotosensibilitate freshness of semi-simple: stale meat mixed with fresh, semi-finished product «Barbecue» add vinegar and spices to hide the putrid smell, and a chicken carcass that has lost freshness, is directed to baking.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti / Alexander Krauledat in fotosensibilitate freshness of semi-simple: stale meat mixed with fresh, semi-finished product «Barbecue» add vinegar and spices to hide the putrid smell, and a chicken carcass that has lost freshness, is directed to baking.© RIA Novostinearly common way fraud is the adulteration in butter, vegetable oils (palm, etc.), as well as spreads and Margarines. Forgery can be detected by color, taste and smell. By laboratory analysis of the oil by adding oil palm glows blue.Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novostinearly common way fraud is the adulteration in butter, vegetable oils (palm, etc.), as well as spreads and Margarines. Forgery can be detected by color, taste and smell. By laboratory analysis of the oil by adding oil palm glows blue. /

Fakes metal is much less: from the Soviet era in Russia there is developed system of probing, marking, i.e. the state inspection of precious alloys. According to law, all jewelry sold in Russia, must pass such inspection and to receive the mark of the state sample. This system protects the Russian buyer.

In principle, a piece of jewelry from a fake metal can be purchased, if you do not purchase in the store, and from the hands or from a private individual on the Internet. Most sane people wouldn’t do that.

Quite rare precious alloys completely replace the base. Often in the case of a fake precious metal in the alloy is present but slightly less than the breakdown on the mark. Or of base alloys manufactures any parts of products, such as locks.

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti, Integratequality whiskey: how to recognize and defend — Indeed, it is a very big problem, because in our country there is no state verification of the inserts. Just as there are no set rules that it is considered natural insert, fixed at the legislative level or at least at the level of public organizations.

A particular challenge stems from the fact that the constantly evolving technology of growing synthetic stones and the manufacture of new materials, which are used in the manufacture of artificial panels. And to distinguish a fake from natural stone can be difficult.

Another big problem is «ennobled» insert. For them is not exactly high-quality raw materials and using specific physico-chemical methods it is «improving.» But, as a rule, changes occur only the appearance — change the color or transparency of the stone.

Though raw and natural, but high-grade natural stone «refined» stone can not be called. In any case, these things should cost less. And the consumer should be notified of the fact of treatment.

— And you can fake anything, or there are materials that are difficult to imitate?

Zolotov: jewelry expertise requires a combination of scientific knowledge and intuition© RIA Novosti, Infographical premium: how to distinguish the real Arabica superficially mimic can be anything, technology permit. The only question is the degree of similarity. But, as a rule, experts that deal with authentication, are finding no appearance of stone, and on the basis of measurements of the physico-chemical parameters.

Expertise in appearance only in the movies can be seen. But in practice it also happens that in appearance nothing is impossible to tell. Usually, it refers to the colorless transparent stones, e.g. diamonds and its quality imitations of the type of natural zircon or cubic Zirconia.

— Why, then, the examiner inserts a magnifying glass in the eye?

In any case, when the first examination is an external examination of the stone, the expert evaluates overall impression: its color, luster, play of light, visible inclusions. Also there are some minor signs, for example, the type and quality of the cut will agree that a poorly executed cut into large clean diamond looks suspicious. A good stone is unlikely to be cheap or low-quality cut. There are many other such moments, which briefly will not tell.

But the confirmation of the authenticity of the stone is quite another. High-quality counterfeit with magnifying glass in your eye can not distinguish. At the same time, during the inspection the expert can get a General impression from the stone, and if he saw a lot of stones, he will get a hint at the subconscious level. Of course, the sixth sense does not make findings, but you can understand where to go.

— Obviously, most counterfeited the most expensive stones?

Yes, the more expensive the stone, the better it is to forge. But again, depends on what we mean by fake. When faced with stones remarkable for a natural, not to say that they are fake. It happens that the natural stones give grown synthetically. The same synthetic ruby all the characteristics to be a ruby. It will differ from the natural only to those that are grown in the laboratory, but its price will differ.

— How do you test?

— In appearance it is quite difficult, it requires physical and chemical methods. Another thing is that now in the Russian market for new products natural rubies are not in principle, at best, sanitized stones. Of course, in jewelry of a century ago could be a natural ruby, then the refinement was not so common.

But synthetic stones have long been cultivated. His method of growing artificial rubies Auguste Vernal developed in the late 19th century. In the Soviet Union industrial rubies are grown with 1960-ies.

— How long to develop research to identify the fakes?

— From the very inception of jewelry. In Ancient Egypt gold was often forged electrum, a natural alloy of two parts gold and one part silver. Accordingly, these materials had to distinguish. And electrum is different from other gold alloys that cannot just acid to isolate the silver. The Egyptians for a long time could not learn to recognize it, but at least this task has been set already.

Since science is constantly evolving. It is clear that experts who are engaged in the detection of adulteration and identification, always slightly behind those who come up with new ways of fraud. First, fake appears on the market, then the market starts to react to it. Plus it may take a while to find an effective method of identifying counterfeits.

— All the methods of counterfeiting found ways of detection?

There are methods of refining, which is impossible to detect without destroying the product or stone. But when the examination is in most cases the expert has no right to violate the integrity of the product.

— How carefully modern forensic techniques to work with jewelry?

For example, when the acid test gold is not necessary to take a sample from the surface of the product, you just need to drop in the alloy of a specific acid in an inconspicuous area, and if the alloy is as claimed, then the product will be nothing. But if the sample is lower than specified, it will go a reaction and will remain a tiny speck. And then is it carefully cleaned and not a trace will remain.

Examination of the stones is performed mainly spectral and other optical methods. The last 20-30 years actively developing x-ray fluorescence method.

— Probably, they are universal, so as not to spoil the product?

— There are some features. Generally, the stone should be removed from the rim. Some methods require a specific placement of the stone in the device, but it is not always possible.

— Who’s most ordered examination of the jewelry? Individuals with the purchase?

Main customer expertise — rather than individuals, and various government agencies, such as customs authorities. It so happens that the customs to detain a person with undeclared jewelry. According to the law through border of the Russian Federation can transfer goods worth not more than $ 10,000. And then the expert must determine the value of the seized valuables. It’s a big responsibility, because the results of the examination, the court will determine the punishment.

This is just one of many examples of the work of experts. In addition to FCS, we prepare experts for work in the insurance and tax fields, law enforcement agencies, the private sector, for consulting services, and so on.

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