Physicist: Russia is ahead of the US in the search for exotic particles

© Fotolia / AbstractUniverseТак the artist imagined stolknovenie ultra-small particlesPhysicist: Russia is ahead of the US in the search for exotic particles© Fotolia / AbstractUniverse

Physicist Vasily Rodionov, Professor of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, told RIA «Novosti» about why scientists are interested in finding exotic super-heavy particles, is there a limit of particle mass and shared his thoughts on how Russia can maintain its leadership in this area of physics and not to yield US.

«In the Standard model most of the physical quantities has its limits – there is, for example, the minimum particle charge or minimum spin is, but there is no limit on the mass. In other words, it does not prohibit the discovery of a particle with any mass value. This is of course absurd, but this option is possible, when the accelerator will be a particle with a mass equal to the mass of the car, and two such particles can produce something like a bus. This, of course, has no relation to particle physics, but the theory does not prohibit such variant of events, while remaining consistent scheme, therefore, there is still something wrong. We followed Moses and Markov, Vladimir Kadyshevsky believe that the mass should be limited,» says the researcher.

According to the scientist, the first radical approach to solving this problem was proposed by academician Vladimir Kadyshevsky, about 40 years ago, developing new geometric approach to the description of electromagnetic and weak interactions of particles. He found that if the «upper» limit on the mass exists, then there must exist a special exotic particles whose properties cannot be described by Standard model of physics.

For example, such particles may have a composite mass, at the same time having Hermitian and non-Hermitian components of the mass. This should constitute the basis of the structure of the mysterious dark matter.

The search for these particles, due to their enormous mass, it is hardly possible to implement in the near future at the Large hadron Collider or other, even more powerful accelerators. As recently discovered by Professor Rodionov, traces of their existence can be noticed by watching other processes and particles. A special role in these processes may play a very weak but nonetheless real interactions the so-called anomalous magnetic moments of exotic particles.

As shown by his calculations, you notice that some types of neutrinos may respond to the strongest magnetic field. If researchers can document the differences in how neutrinos respond to magnetic fields, «turned» in different directions, then the calculations Rodionova and theory Kadyshevsky can find its confirmation.

— Indeed, the discovery of this limit and the exotic particles would mean that there is physics beyond the Standard model.
In recent years the interest in these particles and the theories of Kadyshevsky has greatly increased and we, in the United States and Europe and in China and in other parts of the world.

Why did this happen? In recent years, new theoretical and experimental evidence that the behavior of particles can be described and calculated not only the classical way, using the so-called Hermitian operators that had previously been considered immutable property of quantum mechanics.

At the beginning of this century it became clear that the description of these processes that occur in the real world can be described with the help of other mathematics, allowing for the possibility of the existence of non-Hermitian models, and therefore the existence of exotic particles.

Using this math, we found out that it allows you to set the upper limit on the mass of particles should exist and be directly connected with Hermitian and internetovou components of the mass of the fermions, and disappear when the non-Hermitian component outstay. Just make sure to create new particles.

Here I would like to add that in this area we go head-to-head with American scientists, and even ahead of them, where they are mistaken in their calculations, and calculations, and we would not like to miss this leadership.

— What settings would open the limit of the masses, is it possible to reach it with the TANK or his potential heirs?

— In this issue we kadyszewski she held various positions. He believed that we can get to him just in case, if we build a giant particle accelerator that will allow to reach the energy levels that correspond to this limit of the masses. It is clear that neither the TANK nor any other accelerator can not provide this energy in the near future.

We have a different opinion. We were able to show that to demonstrate the existence of the limit of the masses and the emergence of exotic particles not necessarily to «catch» particles maximum mass. We just need to make sure that there are particles whose behavior is described not only by means of Hermitian operators.

This will help us to prove that the fair and other mathematics of quantum physics, modifitsirovannoi the Dirac equation. In this new equation should appear as Hermitian and pseudo-Hermitian components of the mass of the fermions.

Indirect evidence of this can be found in a different area of physics, non-Hermitian optics, where for over 10 years conducted theoretical calculations were obtained the experimental evidence of the existence of processes that are described in this way. Once these principles are in a separate section of physics, why can’t they present in particle physics? We have conceptualized this opportunity, and we can expect that we will be able to obtain and indicate the real existence of these particles.

What will be the limit of the masses is another question, now we just need to show that it exists on the example of the emergence of exotic particles. This can help us experimented with the estimation of the neutrino mass. There is a kind of paradox – finding exact values of the masses of the lightest particles can help us understand how difficult it can be particles in principle.

Another proof that these limits exist is the fact that neutrinos have non-zero mass and can transform into each other, recently awarded the Nobel prize. Again, this suggests that we don’t need a giant accelerator to prove the existence of Maximov, particles maximum mass. You can just reliably establish the existence of non-Hermitian fermions, and therefore to ensure that this form of matter can take place in our world.

— In Russia, similar experiments were conducted at the Institute for nuclear research in Troitsk, can accommodate neutrino detectors to search for the mass limits?

In the past, in the 1990-th and in the early 2000s, indeed, the interest in these experiments was high in our academic environment. When our colleagues under the leadership of academician Lobacheva measured the mass of neutrinos, they got very strange values — average value of the squares of the neutrino mass was negative. Similar results were obtained in other experiments in USA and Germany

Such measurements, at first glance, are nonsense, and the experimenters were trying to hide it and to show that in fact they were not negative, but just close to zero. According to them, but they left due to errors of measurement, systematic errors and uncertainties, and there is no contradiction in fact was not.

We also showed two years ago that these anomalies in the Trinity experiment and its analogs do not constitute a defect and may be related to the fact that the particles in these plants are moving inside a very strong magnetic field. Neutrino has a spin non-zero mass and anomalous magnetic moment, so that their spin must interact with the magnetic field. Ignoring these interactions, which describes our theory could cause abnormal values.

We had a proposal to organize such inspection on the basis of plant in Troitsk, but at the moment our colleagues are not interested in this project, as far as I know, was stopped. There was a sense that now they are doing post-graduate students and young scientists, and that the project is not a priority for the leadership Institute.

In addition to neutrino experiments on Earth, this quest can help us astrophysical observation, in which the data may be hiding a kind of «code» that will give them non-Hermitian origin. And if we find it, then we will know that not only the light particles have mass, but there are very hard particles which toes can have non-Hermitian nature.

— If to speak about where will be made this discovery, who will be the first «space» or ground detectors?

— It is difficult to build forecasts, as all will, as always, depend on money, and how and where they will be conducting such experiments. From this point of view astrophysical observations seem more attractive as detectors, like the Antarctic IceCube Observatory, work continuously, occupy a huge area and does not require large expenditures. Physicist: Russia is ahead of the US in the search for exotic particles© RIA Novosti / Eugene to Novostinearly in photobanks: we are close to obtaining the first data about parallel Universes

Such gigantic detectors, which, incidentally, exist in Russia, such as the Baikal underwater neutrino telescope, which is currently ongoing construction of a facility that occupies a cubic kilometer. At the end of construction to 2020, the volume of the detector is comparable to the largest neutrino detector IceCube.

Such detectors today observe the particles with the highest energies, and in principle we can go to the level of maximenu, in other words, the maximum mass of particles. The problem, however, lies in the fact that experimenters have yet to figure out how to «see» these particles and measure their properties.