The core of the Sun rotates abnormally quickly, scientists have found

© NASAВыброс coronal mass ejection on the SunThe core of the Sun rotates abnormally quickly, scientists have found© NASA

The core and inner layers of the Sun rotate about four times faster than its surface, which is contrary to all conventional ideas about structure, say astronomers in an article published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

«The most plausible explanation for this puzzle – the core of the Sun rotates faster than its outer layers due to the energy accumulated 4.6 billion years ago when the light was just beginning to emerge. This is a big surprise for us, and it is extremely interesting to think about the fact that we opened the first real traces of the original look of the Sun in the time of his birth,» says Roger Ulrich (Roger Ulrich) from the University of California in Los Angeles (USA).

The speed of rotation of stars around its axis is one of the most important properties for astronomers, as it allows you to calculate the age of light, to clarify its type, to understand how often within it occur «Zvezdochetova» and find out if he has any satellites. As a rule, young stars rotate faster than old stars, than are the scientists when you search for «twins» of the Sun and newborn stars.

Observations of the past 40-50 years, says Ulrich, showed that the solar interior must rotate around its axis with the same speed as the outer layers, on the basis of which were built many other ideas about the behavior and structure of other stars. To test these hypotheses was incredibly difficult, as the traces of rotation of the depths of the sun, the so-called hydrodynamic gravitational waves, cannot be seen on its surface, because there they do not reach.

Ulrich and his colleagues were able to trace their movement through the interior of the Sun, watching other type of waves, seismic vibrations that occur in deep layers luminaries during the «concetrate». For them, scientists have been watching for several decades, through the probes, SDO, SOHO and other space-based observatories, but these variations do not by themselves store information about the structure of the nucleus and the deep layers of the subsoil of the star.

The authors suggested that seismic waves can interact with their gravitational «cousins» if they are moving in the direction of the Sun’s core and then come back. These interactions, in turn, should be reflected in how they change their structure over time.

These ideas, as noted astrophysicists, had their colleagues before, but their verification was virtually impossible due to the fact that gravitational waves in the solar interior are very slow – one oscillation can take from several days to several months. Therefore, scientists did not try to look for their tracks in how to change the faster the seismic waves.

Stand SOHO continuously monitors the interior of the Sun more than 16 years, which allowed Ulrich and his team begin to search for such bursts in archival data, analyzing them using supercomputers.

This analysis revealed a very interesting thing, which astronomers initially didn’t believe – was that the frequency of gravitational waves in the core of the Sun does not coincide with that which was characteristic of his outer layers. As shown by calculations of scientists, the core of the star rotates about four times faster than its outer layers, and make one revolution around the axis during the week, not 28-30 days, as the surface of the Sun.

Why this happens is not clear, however, Ulrich and his colleagues believe that the rotation of the outer layers of the Sun is slowed by the solar wind that is constantly ejected from its surface. In addition, their rotation could slow sunspots and other magnetic structures in the surface layers of the star.