Biologists have discovered how the brain «conducts» fat burning

© Photo : Alexxai KravitzХудая and thick mouseBiologists have discovered how the brain «conducts» fat burning© Photo : Alexxai Kravitz

. Biologists have discovered an unusual chain of nerve cells in the brain that causes the fat cells to temporarily «re» is not for storage, and burning of excess calories after a hearty lunch, according to an article published in the journal Cell Metabolism.

«Obesity is, apparently, arises from the fact that this «switch» is jammed – it will not turn on during a meal and not causes cells to burn calories. As a result, brown fat almost never appears in the body of fat people and their body does not increase their energy consumption when eating, so that their weight begins to grow rapidly,» says Tony Tiganis (Tony Tiganis) from Monash University in Victoria (Australia).

In recent years, scientists are actively studying the mechanisms that control appetite and tendency to abuse food. Through these efforts, biologists have discovered many potential «centers of appetite» and saturation in the brain of humans and animals, as well as several hormones and signaling molecules responsible for the satiety and cravings for fat and sweets.

For example, two years ago, scientists found a special group of nerve cells in the hypothalamus, the hormonal centre of the brain, the intensity of which determines how well-fed person feels or an animal. Similar discoveries as it is today I hope the doctors will help us to not only get rid of obesity, but the reverse is disorders – anorexia and bulimia, the appearance of which people are chronically hungry or avoid certain types of food.

Studying the behavior of these nerve cells in the brains of hungry mice eating portions of food, Tiganis and his colleagues came across a curious phenomenon – was that this part of the hypothalamus to control appetite and feeling of fullness, but also to work fat cells.

When the insulin concentration in the blood of mice increased to a certain point, these neurons started to develop a special signal that caused white fat cells, storing energy, to turn into brown fat that burns her. Typically, these cells are activated in humans by reducing the temperature of the environment and help him to survive, warming the body and protecting it from hypothermia.

It turned out that they also play a key role in burning calories when eating – when scientists blocked the signals that cells of the hypothalamus sent in adipose tissue, mice quickly began to put on weight even on a normal diet. Conversely, in the brain of obese mice, which was observed by Tiganis and his colleagues, this part of the brain was much less active than in the mind of rodents with normal body weight.

Further study of this chain of neurons, as scientists hope, will help us to understand how you can manage its behavior, increasing or decreasing its activity, which will create new methods of dealing with obesity and other metabolic disorders.