Russian scientists have created a device for the «transmission» of the earth

© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Planinata the artist presents a new device for registration of muonsRussian scientists have created a device for the «transmission» of the earth© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyanina

Experts nust «MISIS» together with scientists from LPI and SINP prepared for the practical application of the method of muon radiography, which allows to «Shine through» objects of kilometer size. The method is based on the detection of muons — elementary particles generated due to collision of cosmic rays with the Earth’s atmosphere.

Getting in a dense layer of the atmosphere (starting with 40 km and below), protons collide with molecules that make up our atmosphere. Born in the collision of different particles, some of which quickly turns into a muon. They also «die», having, however, during his lifetime pass the entire atmosphere of the Earth (to every square meter of the Earth’s surface every minute reach 10 thousand muons), and even to penetrate to 8.5 kilometers under water or 2 kilometers into the interior of the earth. The denser the material, the faster it weakens the flow of muons. So if you put between «space» and the solid object detector, that detector will eventually manifest the silhouette of the object. If the object has a cavity, they too will be seen as muons passing through them, overcome a lower layer of the firmament. Three detectors located at different sides of the object, is usually enough to make it a three-dimensional map.
Muons are fixed by means of a series of photographic plates with silver bromide. Some of them lighted. Then, records show, and map the illuminated areas, building a path of illumination. The smaller the grains of the bromide and more accurate matching algorithm, the better to get a picture of the object.


© Nust «MISIS»Trace of the muon on the plateRussian scientists have created a device for the «transmission» of the earth© nust «MISIS»Trace of the muon on the plate

Scientists nust «MISIS», FIAN and the Institute of nuclear physics of Moscow state University under the guidance of a leading expert nust «MISIS», doctor of physical and mathematical Sciences, Professor Natalia Polukhina developed for muon radiography, the track detectors, which allow not only to see them falling on the muons and to determine with high accuracy the direction of their movement. «Decoding the indications of the detectors, it is possible to make three-dimensional painting a variety of objects ranging from meter size of voids in the soil, the density distribution of the rocks and ending with a map of the caves in the mountain,» said the rector nust «Misa» Alevtina Chernikov.

© Nust «MISIS»Tunneling microscope for the analysis of muon tracksRussian scientists have created a device for the «transmission» of the earth© nust «MISIS»Tunneling microscope for the analysis of muon tracks


The new technology has other applications.

«Can non-invasively assess the state of the crater of the volcano, nuclear reactor or glacier in the mountains— says Professor Natalia Polukhina. — You can find new natural underground storage for natural gas, to catch the emerging mountain of waste when mining coal rocks the fire before it burned the inside, to predict the eruption of a volcano or prevent the catastrophic consequences of failures of soil in areas worked out mines or on the streets. Catastrophic ground failures in Berezniki in Perm region has already become a huge social problem. And we must remember that such technological failures affect people in many large settlements.»

The Russian experiments that confirmed the efficiency of the fission-track method, have been in the mine Geophysical survey of RAS in Obninsk: the scientists were able to «see» with detectors the structure of underground structures that had experience. Now preparing a set of detectors based on the emulsion produced by a domestic enterprise «AVK Slavich» that can be used, for example, to search for hydrocarbons.


© Nust «MISIS»Leading expert nust «MISIS», doctor of physico-mathematical Sciences, Professor Natalia Polukhina Russian scientists have created a device for the «transmission» of the earth© nust «MISIS»Leading expert nust «MISIS», doctor of physico-mathematical Sciences, Professor Natalia Polukhina


«Our emulsion track detectors are good because easy to operate, do not require electricity to operate, in the case of exploration permit to do a much smaller number of wells, and thus is able to accurately distinguish objects with a size from meters to kilometers,» — said the Professor Polukhina.

Experts nust «MISIS» working on software that will improve the quality of decoding the tracks, as well as the protection of sensors from corrosive environment in wells.