Russian scientists have proved that nanoparticles of drugs can get into the lungs

© Fotolia / science photoСотрудница the lab at workRussian scientists have proved that nanoparticles of drugs can get into the lungs© Fotolia / science photo

. Russian biophysicists found out how small nanoparticles can penetrate the «armor» of the cells of the lungs and penetrate the human body, which allows their use for the treatment of diseases of the lungs and other organs, according to a paper published in the journal Langmuir.

«Particles nanoaerosol strikes our experimental system is literally like bullets. We first saw something that highly charged nanoparticles of glucose penetrate the fat layer covering the cells,» explained Elena Shlyapnikova from the Institute of theoretical and experimental Biophysics RAS, Pushchino, quoted in the press service of the Institute.

Asthma and many other lung diseases today are treated with various inhalers are special devices that turn the solution of medication into an aerosol, a set of tiny particles and droplets. Such particles can penetrate lung tissue, but they have a big drawback – most of them deposited in the trachea and bronchi before they reach the deep layers of pulmonary tissue.

This problem, how to write Shlyapnikova and her colleagues, it is possible to solve a fairly simple way – just decrease the drops to the size of the nanoparticles, and then most of them will reach the «end» light. Such a simple solution, on the other hand, gave rise to another problem – scientists do not know if such nanoaerosol to infiltrate in the lung tissue.

The fact that the cells of the alveoli, «sacs», where the exchange of gases between blood and air, covered with a special layer of fat that protects them from external influences. Large particles and droplets aerosols can penetrate through this layer, however, the biophysicists were doubts about the ability of nanoparticles to carry out such a «breakthrough».

Scientists from ITEB found that it is possible, conducting experiments with an artificial analogue of the «armor» of the cells of the alveoli, which they raised in a special bath that allowed them to monitor the surface tension of this layer of fat. Then they were placed over this layer of a special gun, spraying of a solution of sugar and several other substances in a set of nanoparticles, and watched whether they could «shoot» analog fat armor of light.

As it turned out, a fairly large nanoparticles whose dimensions exceed 100 nm, it is very easy to break through this layer of fat regardless of the solution composition from which they were prepared. Having achieved success, Biophysics reduced the size of nanoparticles and tried to understand what their properties most strongly influence the probability of «cross» fat armor of light.

It turned out that these odds are greatly influenced not only the size of the nanodrops drugs, but whether they are charged and polar. If the molecules of nanoaerosol not have areas of excess positive and negative charge, then they can be embedded in the lipid layer, making it more dense, disturbing other nanoparticles to penetrate it.

As scientists hope that further observation of the process of «shelling» of the fat layer nanoparticles will help them to reveal all the secrets of this physical process, and understand how they can be used to create nanoaerosols suitable for treating even the most difficult lung diseases.