Scientists have found a new way to get rid of the «bad» fat

© Photo : Alexxai KravitzХудая and thick mouseScientists have found a new way to get rid of the «bad» fat© Photo : Alexxai Kravitz

American geneticists have discovered a special enzyme, preventing the fat cells to burn excess calories and learned to block its action, said in an article published in the journal Cell Reports.

«Our main goal is to find or create methods to treat or prevent the development of obesity. Our experiments show that we can achieve this, by acting on specific protein in white fat cells and causing them to turn into brown fat that help the body fight obesity,» said Mal lodha, chief justice Irfan (Irfan Lodhi) from Washington University in St. Louis (USA).

In recent years, scientists are looking for ways to get rid of obesity not only by diet but also by various hormones and signaling molecules that cause the body by yourself to burn excess calories. As shown by experiments on mice, this can be achieved by forcing part of the normal fat cells turn into so-called brown fat.

Brown fat is mostly found in the tissues of infants and babies and is used for rapid calorie burning and heating of the body. The growth of brown fat disappears. In the body of adults is dominated by white fat, plays the role of «warehouse» nutrients.

Recently biologists have discovered that some substances, like capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient of pepper, and some hormones can reverse this process, but their medical use is complicated by the fact that this procedure affects all of the human body, which is extremely dangerous for health.

Mal lodha, chief justice and his colleagues have found a new, potentially safer method of such transformation, watching how varied the cells of adipose tissue mouse living in the warm and cold cells. These experiments helped scientists to find the PexRAP enzyme present in large amounts in white fat and almost completely absent in brown fat cells.

«Molecules PexRAP, as a rule, are almost absent in the cells of brown fat in the body mice. When we put them in a cold environment, then the concentration of this protein decreased in white fat cells, as a result they began to behave like brown fat. Cold, in turn, causes the brown fat to burn energy and warm the body,» explains the scientist.

Following this idea, the researchers blocked the genes responsible for the production PexRAP in the fat cells of several mice. As a result, virtually all their fat reserves started to accumulate, and burn calories. this allows rodents had significantly less weight compared to other dogs and had approximately two times less fat than mice from the control group.

How does this enzyme? As shown by the experiments of scientists, it can penetrate the cell nucleus and interact there with other proteins, inhibiting the operation of chains of genes associated with the heating body at low temperatures. As a result, the energy entering fat cells, not burned, but stored.

Further experiments with PexRAP showed that complete blocking of its work is not completely safe for animals – it can lead to overheating of the body or the appearance of the fever in that case, if the ambient temperature is high enough.

Soon Mal lodha, chief justice and his colleagues are trying to understand how this can be avoided, and the successful solution of this problem will open the way to fight the obesity epidemic that hit mankind in recent years.