Astronomers have found a «twin» of the first galaxies of the Universe in the constellation Lynx

© Photo : ESA/Hubble and NASA; Acknowledgement: Judy SchmidtКарликовая galaxy, taken by Hubble space telescopeAstronomers have found a «twin» of the first galaxies of the Universe in the constellation Lynx© Photo : ESA/Hubble and NASA; Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt

Astronomers discovered in the constellation Lynx the galaxy, recently formed from the primordial matter of the Universe, the study of which pointed to one of the main problems for the origin of life just after the Big Bang, according to an article published in the journal MNRAS.

«Most of the stars in the galaxy J0811+4730 erupted in a few million years before we reached it. This makes it one of the most «pure» examples of primordial galaxies, analogous to those of galaxies that existed in the early Universe a billion years after the Big Bang,» says Trinh Thuan (Trinh Thuan) from the University of Virginia (USA).

As the scientists explain, in the first era of the Universe star was almost 100% made of hydrogen and helium. All other elements, including carbon, oxygen, neon and iron appeared in their depths during thermonuclear reactions and were then scattered through the galaxies by supernova explosions. The next generation of stars spawned an even greater mass of astronomical «metals» – elements heavier than hydrogen and helium.

A small number of these «metals» in the early Universe makes most astronomers assume that life in the first age simply could not exist – it required the planets that could not be born from-for elementary shortages of building materials.

As noted by Tuan, the exact answer to this question is nobody knows, since the exact number of «heavy» elements in the first galaxies and the speed with which increased their mass, to measure is quite difficult. For example, observations of the oldest galaxies show that the nitrogen and the carbon in them was formed quickly enough, whereas oxygen, due to the differences in the processes that generate these elements in them or was absent, or had accumulated very slowly.

Tuan and his colleagues tried to find the exact answer to this question, going on the trick – they watched over the most ancient and distant galaxies of the Universe, and relatively close to us dwarf «star cities» that emerged relatively recently from «pure» matter in the intergalactic medium.

Families like stars, as the researchers note, for all of its properties are similar to that of the primary galaxies of the Universe, however, it is possible to study in detail with the help of modern telescopes. Following this idea, the scientists studied several hundred presumably young dwarf galaxies until they came across a very unusual object J0811+4730.

This galaxy, located in the constellation Lynx, was formed almost moments ago by cosmic standards, less than 10 million years ago, and the first generation of stars has not yet had time to implode. This allowed the scientists to estimate the proportion of oxygen in its primary matter and to estimate the speed of production.

As shown by these measurements, of oxygen in it record low – its share is about 8% lower than in other young dwarf galaxies. The rate of production was much lower than expected by scientists, based on the relationship between the brightness of galaxies and properties of their stars. All this once again speaks in favor of that life in the early Universe hardly existed, the scientists conclude.


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