Biokonstruktor for scientists: how methods are used «reverse» genetics

© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Planinata the artist imagines a biological puzzle that you can assemble by the methods of reverse geneticsBiokonstruktor for scientists: how methods are used «reverse» genetics© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyanina

Geneticists of the century, due to breakthrough discoveries in his science, more reminiscent of the «lab of the gods» who own the technology of the Assembly «three-dimensional genetic puzzle» — a biological organism.About sequences of genes accumulated a huge amount of information — and now you can experiment with moving them around, to be in chains, on or off. It turns out that mastering modern technologies geneticist may «invent» your body and raise it from the embryo, observing the development at all stages of growth.

To do this, use the methods of «reverse» genetics: from genotype to phenotype. We used to go from the General to the particular: from the phenotype (appearance) genotype — write our appearance and other genetic factors in the genome. Phenotype can be defined as «the removal» of genetic information towards the environmental factors. «Reverse» genetics goes in the opposite direction, making of gene structures and predicting how they will manifest in the phenotype.

A Boxing term in this case is used to represent the gene off — and that’s not «mouse out», and «gene knockout». Part of the working gene or is simply removed, or replaced broken, or implemented paste («gene trap»). Create nokauti mice — it’s a long con, in which creatures with new properties. If these technologies are improved, people will have the opportunity to create a completely new biological beings. Meanwhile, work is underway to study the genes by their nokautirovav in the embryo stage. How is it done?

Now these lines for more than a thousand — they can study different human diseases. Some of the lines are displayed in Russian institutions. For example, the line TNF/LT panel obtained in the laboratory of molecular immunology, Institute of molecular biology named after VA Engelhardt of RAS, headed by academician Sergei purpose. The panel contains dozens of mice with different subtle differences. For example, there is a mouse with a modified gene of tumor necrosis factor — they can test different treatments for cancer, and to explore congenital and acquired immunodeficiency.

Says academician of RAS, head of laboratory of molecular mechanisms of immunity, Institute of molecular biology named after VA Engelhardt of RAS, head of Department of molecular immunology, Institute of physico-chemical biology named after A. N. Belozersky, head of the Department of immunology, faculty of biology, Moscow state University imeni M. V. Lomonosova, Sergei purpose: «Russia has withdrawn only a few lines nokauti mice — but this technology has not yet become routine. We have the removal took about two years, on the understanding that it is a few years. And in some of its projects, we are studying mice that «made» ten years ago. And these studies are not yet finished.»