Scientists: Earth and Mars is half evaporated during your birth

© Philip J. CarteМоделирование collision of two small nuclei of the planetsScientists: Earth and Mars is half evaporated during your birth© Philip J. Carte

Embryos of Earth and Mars were so hot that their «atmosphere» consisting of vapors of silicon and metals, is continuously evaporated into space, depriving the future of the planet, about 40% of their weight, say scientists in articles published in the journal Nature.

«In the past, we certainly knew that the process of planetary formation was especially violent, and that the Earth and other planets have unique chemical and isotopic composition compared to asteroids, but didn’t realize that these things were connected. It turned out that the collision of the nuclei of the planets and their evaporation in the space greatly influenced the composition of Earth and Mars,» explains REMCO hin (Remco Hin) from the University of Bristol (UK).

Today, scientists have almost no doubt that the planets begin their birth inside the flat gas-dust disk filled with small particles of dust and thick clouds of gas, and their formation ends during the series of clashes planetesimals – the «germ» of the planets with the size of Vesta or Ceres, as well as large comets and asteroids.

On the other hand, we do not know anything about how these looked like the nuclei of the planets and how exactly the collision occurred between them. Some scientists think that planetesimal was like a giant glowing sphere of molten rock, but others believe that they were more like giant balls of semi-liquid mud.

These differences, as noted by hin, largely due to the fact that even the most ancient and «pure» breed of Mars, Earth and moon are radically different in their chemical and isotopic composition of the primary matter of the Solar system, fragments of which periodically fall to Earth in the form of asteroids of chondrites. While scientists are unable to explain these differences, which prevents the disclosure of the history of the formation of the Earth and planets outside the Solar system.

Hin and his colleagues, as well as another group of scientists from Oxford, came close to getting the answer to this question, created the first detailed computer simulation of the early Solar system, taking into account all possible physical processes influencing the formation and collision planetesimals.

These calculations revealed an interesting effect, which scientists previously thought. It turned out that the relatively small nuclei of the planets, comparable in size to Mars will be highly unstable «atmosphere» consisting of a vaporous silicon, sodium, and other metals and other chemical elements.

This atmosphere is constantly heated by the drops of other celestial bodies on such «germ», and it will continue to evaporate into space, because gravity planetesimals would be too weak to keep up with such hot air from its surface.

Here are the laws of physics, postulating that the smaller the mass of a particular element or its isotope, the easier it can «escape» from the planet’s atmosphere. Due to this, magnesium, silicon and many other relatively light substances most quickly evaporate from the atmosphere of the future Earth and Mars.

Scientists estimate that the two planets could lose about 40% of its mass and lost most of the volatile substances and light isotopes of magnesium and other metals present in large amounts in the matter of asteroids and comets. Similarly, as scientists believe, may be formed and other planets outside the Solar system, and observing them will help to check, whether so it actually and confirm or refute the hypothesis of the British geologists.