The ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock

© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Planinata the artist imagines the pulsation of an artificial heartThe ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock© Illustration RIA Novosti . A. Polyanina

The world heart Federation in 1999 launched world heart day, celebrated annually on 29 September. Cardiovascular disease — the most common cause of death in the world, although it in the last decade and dropped significantly.Scientists, engineers, biophysicists, materials scientists across the planet are working on creating an artificial heart. So why is it still not possible to produce a seemingly simple biological pump, which just drives the blood?

The world was hundreds of patents protecting the copyright as the creators of the separate ventricles of the heart, and full of devices — artificial hearts. However, a small number of operations for installing a fully artificial hearts (only a few dozen) is incomparable to the number of thousands of surgeries for implantation of individual artificial ventricles. And the ventricles is set often while the patient awaits a donor heart. It turns out that none of the engineering is not yet able to replace the biological heart.

CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO / SynCardia Systems, Inc. The SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart with pink heart backgroundИскусственное heart SynCardiaThe ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knockCC BY-SA 3.0 IGO / SynCardia Systems, Inc. The SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart with pink heart backgroundИскусственное heart SynCardia

Says chief transplant coordinator of the Siberian Federal district, the developer of an artificial heart Alexander Cherniavsky: «Now in the world there are used designs of artificial hearts. The most advanced pneumatic heart is SinCardia from the American company CardioWest. This heart was created many years ago, and it is constantly improving. The latest model is quite successful — there is a small pneumatic actuator. In the course of another American model, the Jarvik 7. We have all heard about the innovative French heart Carmat, but it is a lot of problems. In Russia we have so far developed only the artificial left ventricle AVK-N «Sputnik». But the world was done in this field very much, so if I ever say that suggested something new, I don’t believe, because to do it now is extremely difficult.»

© AFP 2017 / Karen BleierИскусственное heart Jarvik 7The ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock© AFP 2017 / Karen BleierИскусственное heart Jarvik 7

After the installation of artificial hearts and ventricular usually occurs three problems. The first is infectious complications, because it is not possible to implant an artificial heart so that it is not recharged from external media. And the surface of the body for the wire is also the entrance for infection. Not yet found approaches to overcome this problem, although we studied the possibility of charging through the skin, but the potential difference is usually causes severe dermatitis. Also had fantasies about mounting inside the body of a human small nuclear fusion reactor that would produce energy, but on this subject the scientists to think has ceased. While any artificial heart or ventricle is powered by a battery outside. On average to change the battery need 8-10 hours.

© AFP 2017 / Christophe ArchambaultИскусственное heart CarmatThe ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock© AFP 2017 / Christophe ArchambaultИскусственное heart Carmat

The second problem is thrombohemorrhagic complications. All people who have artificial hearts are taking blood thinners. In the artificial heart has four artificial valve, which is fast deteriorating. Therefore, the analyses of these patients show a higher thrombus-related hazard. In order to reduce it, in some designs missing pulse, that is, the devices drive the blood in a continuous flow. Some experts believe that thus decreases the risk of thrombosis, therefore, the ideal artificial heart must not pulsate.

© AP Photo / Andrew Caballero-ReynoldsИскусственное heart VentrAssistThe ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock© AP Photo / Andrew Caballero-ReynoldsИскусственное VentrAssist heart

The third issue is hemolysis, i.e. destruction of red blood cells with the release into the environment of hemoglobin. People gradually turn yellow, their blood spoils. However, this problem can handle easily.

In addition to these three issues, there are tasks that it is not clear how to solve it.

Explains the Director of the Federal scientific center of Transplantology and artificial organs named after academician V. I. Shumakov, academician of the RAS Sergey Gautier: «Any artificial pump loses as it does not have the ability to renew themselves, as does the biological tissue. Why we heart your whole life? Because there is a change of the cellular structure and there is a constant flow of oxygen. The heart is hemodynamically works so perfectly that there is no turbulence, no thrombosis if of course, we are talking about a healthy heart. It’s faster if we run, and the pulsation slows down when we stop. In order for the artificial pump was working in this mode, it must be driven by the microcomputer. It turns out that you need to create a very high-tech device. And it is very expensive! While the optimal solution in price and efficiency is the transplantation of a donor heart.»

However, according to academician Sergey Gaultier, the development of artificial hearts, it is imperative to continue because, getting the perfect artificial heart, the person will get rid of the severity of immunosuppression — the rejection of foreign tissue that occurs during transplantation. At the moment of biological heart while indispensable, but the artificial samples are gradually being improved and are gaining recognition doctors.

© Photo : JSC Zelenograd innovation-technology centrak-N «Satellite»The ideal artificial heart must have the eternal battery, and do not knock© Photo : JSC Zelenograd innovation-technology centrak-N Sputnik

Alexander Cherniavsky: «When we did a medical literature review 10 years ago, the artificial heart is very much lost. But now the three-year survival after transplantation of the donor heart and after implantation of an artificial roughly equal. Until, of course, we have many complications to the Central nervous system in the formulation of an artificial heart, but their number is gradually decreasing. I think in the foreseeable future maybe it will be possible to predict how long a human lives with an artificial heart.»

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