Chemists and archaeologists have proved that Georgia is a Motherland of wine

© Photo : Judyta OlszewskiОдин of vessels during the stone age, in whose walls, scientists have found traces of wineChemists and archaeologists have proved that Georgia is a Motherland of wine© Photo : Judyta Olszewski

Chemical analysis of ancient pottery shards showed that the people of Georgia began to make wine for 8 thousand years ago, about a thousand years before this art appeared in the middle East and Iran, said in an article published in the journal PNAS.

«An endless variety of flavors and fragrances a modern 10 thousand varieties of grapes is the product of a very long distribution and breeding of cultivated and wild grapes throughout Eurasia. And those grape varieties, which are now producing about 99.9% of the wine on the Ground, started their journey on the planet here in the Caucasus,» said Stephen Batiuk (Stephen Batiuk) from the University of Toronto (Canada).

How do you think scientists today, the homeland of the ancestors of all modern grape varieties is quite a vast region in Western Asia encompassing the middle East, Iran and the South Caucasus. This is supported by genetic and archaeological research indicates that people already knew how to grow grapes and turn its juice into wine about 7-6 thousand years ago, long before the first great civilizations.

Batiuk and his colleagues, who worked under David Lordkipanidze, one of the most famous Georgian archaeologists and anthropologists have found that the wine actually did not arise in Persia, as previously thought scientists and the Caucasus, carrying out excavations in the settlement of Gadarine in Marneuli plain in the South-East of Georgia.

Approximately 8-7 thousand years ago there appeared the first settlements of farmers who migrated from the Middle East and distributed at that time throughout Europe and Asia. Over the past half century of Soviet and Georgian archaeologists found a lot of tools, vessels and other signs of the existence of a fairly advanced civilization in this corner of the Caucasus.

In the past, such findings were considered exclusively from an archaeological and cultural point of view. Recently, the situation has changed due to the fact that chemists noticed that the walls of pottery contain many pores, which often are molecules of fat, protein and other substances contained in food. Accordingly, the study of their composition and quantity may suggest what products were stored in the vessel.

In total, the team Lordkipanidze managed to get about 18 different shards of clay pots and other utensils that are not cleaned from traces of organic matter, remove it and try to determine its source.

The contents of the missing shards using gas chromatographs and spectrometers, scientists have discovered a special combination of organic substances, characteristic for two types of food – raw grapes and wine. In particular, half of these vessels, scientists have recorded large quantities of tartaric, malic, citric and succinic acid, existing in large quantity in the fermenting grape juice or finished wine, as well as other chemicals related to juice these berries.

This is supported by the fact that the soil in Gadarine contains a large amount of grape pollen and fossil plants of so-called – particles of silicon contained in the cells of the vine and other plants. In addition, the climate in the valley Region was more moist and soft in the late stone age, which allowed the grapes to grow there without constant care on the part of man.

All this, as scientists believe, suggests that wine-making tradition originated in the territory of Georgia at least 8 thousand years ago, when it was cut the pots in which chemists have found traces of wine. This pushes the time of opening the wine for about a thousand years ago, and brings it home from Zagrocki mountains of Iran to the South Caucasus, conclude the authors.