The laws of the microcosm: can a person pass through the wall

© Illustration RIA Novosti . Alina Planincludes passes through the wallThe laws of the microcosm: can a person pass through the wall© Illustration RIA Novosti . Alina Polyanina

We used to see the world, completely obeying the laws of classical mechanics. There are causes and effects — and the first mandatory precede the second. But at the micro level on individual particles is ruled by its own laws, the body which scientists call quantum mechanics. Some of these laws are so unusual that they cannot be understood, only describe mathematically and accept.

One of the «strange» phenomena of the quantum world applies the tunnel effect. In the General case, the so-called passage of a particle through a region of space, stay «forbidden» classical mechanics. The most common example is the overcoming of the energy barrier of the particle when its energy is less than the height of the barrier. In the real world is comparable to that of running at a speed of 25 kilometers per hour man is catching up fast with a speed of 50 kilometers per hour the horse. And in the microcosm of this situation in order.

The mathematical apparatus of quantum mechanics shows that, the higher the barrier, the less the likelihood that this will happen a «favor» of energy. When switching to more complex objects (including the human body), consisting of a larger number of particles, the possibility of tunneling is maintained, but becomes very unlikely because it requires that all the particles make a transition simultaneously. However, if people had infinite life (longer than the age of the Universe), sooner or later he would be able to penetrate a concrete wall. However, the number of attempts necessary for it is very difficult to imagine.

So, the possibility of particles tunneling through the barrier «obey» a certain ratio of energy and time measurement. The value of Planck’s constant included in the expression equal to 6,626070040*10⁻3⁴ Joule a second. If this value is increased, our world would be insane. Pieces of ice seeped through the wall of glass cages for the animals would become useless, and people would have remained physical barriers. But due to the small value of Planck’s constant by such «skills» have only a few particles.

Tunnelling passage of a particle through an energy barrier underlie some phenomena of nuclear and atomic physics, and even used in microelectronics. Due to this phenomenon, electrons are able to escape from the surface of the metal and the semiconductor, under certain conditions, there is a «extra» area on the chart of dependence of current on voltage. The tunnel effect can harm — for example, field-effect transistors, where the uncontrolled penetration of charge carriers through the energy barrier is a drawback.