Useful after death: the transplantation of organs from deceased donors saving people

© Depositphotos / gpointstudioВрачи during operationUseful after death: the transplantation of organs from deceased donors saving people© Depositphotos / gpointstudio

One deceased person, becoming an organ donor can potentially save at least five lives, say doctors-transplant. However, the current legislation to take advantage of this chance won’t allow it. The Ministry of health is preparing to submit to the state Duma a new bill which will regulate the relationship between the donor, recipient and surgeon. The correspondent of RIA Novosti learned in Russia solve the problem of shortage of organs for transplantation and why dead people can become potential donors.

Kidney is not enough

Among suffering from kidney failure in Russia only on 30 thousand patients have the opportunity several times a week to receive replacement therapy — dialysis. Thus patients needing this procedure many times. According to the chief transplant surgeon, Ministry of health of Russia and Director of the National medical research center of Transplantology and artificial organs them. V. I. Shumakov Sergey Gaultier, the other «or did not come to this type of treatment and die from other complications, or patiently waiting for them to take dialysis».

Dialysis — the procedure is extremely expensive, and the need for appropriate facilities is constantly growing — now there are about 500 across the country. «The most logical and real way, says Gautier, and giving the opportunity to man are on dialysis, get a kidney donor».

«Now the doctors and the Ministry of health faces the task as much as possible to develop a kidney transplantation. According to statistics, in the year we perform thousands of such operations in the country, and you need ten times more», — said the transplant.

One of the main problems faced by doctors and patients, the shortage of donor organs. «The state has a huge resource of donor organs that can be obtained from the dead, but it is important to organize the work. We are not talking about any rights violations or crime. The basis of transplantation in the country should be a posthumous donor potential,» explains Gauthier.

Donor or cadaver

Called the donor organ obtained from the deceased and is able to function in the recipient’s body, or organ of a healthy person. In the second case, without risk to their health, a donor can only donate one kidney or part of liver.

Under current law, a living donor can only be a genetic relative. This implies that, for example, the wife of donors for each other are not. «Of course, it reduces the possibility of in vivo organ donation. But excludes financial dependence. We have for many years actively conducting operations with live donors. Usually they become parents for their children,» explains Gauthier.

Be taken for cadaveric kidney transplantation is possible only in case, if the potential donor was pronounced brain-dead. When this medication and use of a respirator is necessary to maintain the vital functions of the organs: the heart should be beating, kidneys and lungs to function, pancreas — blood supply to. The donor may be the only person who has no blood diseases as well as cancer and infectious, including tuberculosis, active hepatitis and HIV.

According to Sergey Gautier, in hospitals there are often situations when a deceased patient is in all respects suitable as a potential organ donor. This resource should be used for the salvation of the population, convinced the transplant.
That will change the bill

The current law on transplantation of organs and tissues of human origin, adopted in 1992, based on the so-called presumption of consent, that is, if people don’t refuse post-mortem organ donation, it automatically falls into the category of the «consonants». «If a person died and there is no evidence that he ever expressed reluctance to be a donor after death, it is potentially such. No mention of the ability to record this consent in the law no. This is its Achilles ‘ heel,» says Gauthier.

The new bill will take into account the in vivo expression. «We believe that the most correct would be to establish a register of refusals: if a person wants to Express their lifetime will, make it into an electronic database. Further, if he dies in this database you can see him if he ever refused. If it is, then there could be a potential donor,» explains Sergey Gaultier.

According to the doctor, it is equally important that people were prepared to ensure that can save someone even after death. But you need to take into account the desires of the individual and to inform him about a possible donation.

Another problem of the existing rules is that now doctors are not obliged to monitor the conservation of potential donors and their organs. According to Gauthier, after the adoption of the law in a new wording the hospital will have to pay more attention to patients who, due to serious illness is likely to die and could potentially be donors. Thus they must be treated no less active than those who have a good prognosis.

According to Sergei Gautier, in Spain, the frequency of seizures post-mortem of the bodies is 34-35 per million of population per year, in France, 26-25, in Italy — 25, in Russia and 3.3 per year. While in our country there are some regions in which the established donor coordination system. For example, in the Kemerovo region is made 11 seizures per million population per year, and in Moscow — 15.

Lidiya Zotova, coach and Director for sports training in the sports school under the Department of sports and tourism, 15 years ago had a liver transplant. «I’m 15 years no use wasting time on search of the doctor. I slowly died, went to different cities, went to psychics and sorcerers. But it refused: I had Caroli disease and cirrhosis fourth degree,» says Lydia.

After another consultation, the woman was hospitalized. One of the doctors at the local hospital referred her to the Center of surgery named after Petrovsky, where at that time worked Sergey Gaultier. «Sergey said, «You’re our patient.» I was put on inspection, then made the waiting list. Five months later I had surgery — cadaveric liver transplant,» says the woman.

The liver is found in the Institute Sklifosovsky. Lydia urgently organized the operation, which was successful. «All these years I feel fine. Doctors me keep in touch, and every six months I go through a full inspection. I have almost no physical restrictions,» she says.

© RIA Novosti / Grigory to Sysoeva in photobacteria donor kidney in the state Russian Scientific Center of Surgery named after B. V. PetrovskyUseful after death: the transplantation of organs from deceased donors saving people© RIA Novosti / Grigory to Sysoeva in photobacteria donor kidney in the state Russian Scientific Center of Surgery named after B. V. Petrovsky

Lydia believes that the operation was for her «return from the dead»: «Before consultation with Gauthier, I knew nothing about transplant. For me it was something out of the magazines and books. I thought I was going to have to sell to do the surgery. But these doctors do not need any money or fame, they only care about the man. I’d like to on what do these doctors know as many people as possible».

Every year in Moscow are about 400 kidney transplants for all residents of Russia and more than 300 liver transplantations. For not yet ended 2017 in the middle of 145 transplants of the heart, that is «unthinkable», according to Gauthier, for the world of practice.