Russian physicists have described what happens inside a black hole

© Photo : ESA/ATG medialabСверхмассивная black hole an artist’s concept of producing super-strong windRussian physicists have described what happens inside a black hole© Photo : ESA/ATG medialab

Physics from the Mathematical Institute named after Steklov of RAS have developed a theoretical description of the behavior of matter inside a black hole and found a possible way to reconcile quantum physics and theory of gravitation, according to a paper published in the Journal of High Energy Physics.

«We used an approach based on the holographic principle. It is that two-dimensional quantum system that «lives» on the boundary of a curved 3D space, called the space of anti-de sitter can be described within it classical gravitational physics. Thus, the three-dimensional space together with everything that is going on inside plays a role of a hologram illustrating what is happening directly in our system,» said Mikhail Khramtsov from the Mathematical Institute, quoted in a press-service of the Russian science Foundation.

Ordinary and supermassive black holes have such strong gravity that it cannot be overcome, not exceeding the speed of light. No objects or radiation cannot escape due to the border effects of the black hole called «event horizon».

What happens behind the event horizon, remains a mystery and subject of debate among physicists. Most scientists believe that, in principle, impossible to look inside a black hole and study its structure, as it will lead to very unpleasant consequences – in this case, it will be impossible to reconcile the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics.

However, black holes exist, and their behavior need to describe. Relatively recently scientists have started to believe that black holes are actually not three-dimensional and two-dimensional objects — a kind of cosmic «hologram» where the space is compressed closer to the edges and where thrown in a straight line an object is returned to the point of beginning of the flight.

This theory and describe its equations were extended in the late 1990-ies of two cosmologists – Juan Maldacena of Princeton University, and Gerard ‘t Goitom from the University of Utrecht. According to some scholars, the same principles can describe the entire Universe as a whole — in other words, it is possible that we live in a flat two-dimensional hologram.

Based on these principles, Khramtsov and his colleagues tried to explain why the existence of black holes does not violate the laws of thermodynamics, and describe quantum processes, which are responsible for the heat transport inside them, on the basis of the theory of relativity and other classical laws of physics.

As shown by the calculations, a black hole can indeed experience some analogue of the thermodynamic equilibrium, as in the «normal» Universe. To test this, as the scientists can experimentally, by colliding the particles are cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero.

If these particles enter the magnetic trap, when irradiation with a laser they will behave approximately the same way as matter in flat black holes. In particular, information about the appearance of new quantum connections between particles will be distributed inside the trap at a certain speed, and the deviation from it would mean that the calculations of Russian physicists is not entirely true.

As noted Khramtsov, can likewise warm up the quark-gluon plasma created within the TANK or Collider RHIC in Brookhaven (USA), that allows to use the same principles to describe its behavior and further study. According to him, in the near future, scientists will try to find the answer to another important question associated with black holes: if information is lost during the passage of matter through the event horizon.