Biologists have found where evolution of men and women

© Fotolia / pict riderЭволюцияBiologists have found where evolution of men and women© Fotolia / pict rider

. The evolution of humanity is not stopped, and today, it pushes men in the direction of increase of body weight and deterioration of education, and women in the direction of «average» growth and early puberty, say genetics in an article published in the journal PNAS.

«We found an obvious link between number of children and certain features of the anatomy and shape of men and women. For example, men with higher body mass index produce more children than their more slender «competitors». Likewise, tall women leave fewer children than women with secondary growth,» says Peter Visscher (Peter Visscher) from the University of Queensland in Brisbane (Australia) and his colleagues.

In recent years, evolutionists fiercely arguing about stopped whether the evolution of people after there was the first civilization and the first representatives crossed to life in large societies of their own kind. Some biologists claim that biological evolution of Homo sapiens slowed down or even stopped, as the survival of individuals and their likelihood to continue their family began to depend not on the quality of the genes, and intelligence, wealth and social status.

Other scientists disagree, and for the last 20 years, they conducted several experiments and studies in which researchers have tested how changing the genome of humanity as a whole over the past centuries and millennia. They often led to opposite conclusions, which have contributed to the belief that evolution is still in progress or that it has stopped.

Visscher and his colleagues tried to find traces of natural selection among thousands of Brits who donated their DNA to the Biobank project. Scientists were interested in how various small variations in their genes and distinctive features of the anatomy and appearance can influence the number of their children.

Conducting such a comparison, genetics was guided by a simple principle – the genes of people who leave more offspring are more likely to survive and spread further in the population than the DNA of men and women having only one child or no children at all.

Following this idea, the researchers analyzed the DNA, approximately 500 thousand people aged 50 to 70 years, participated in the research through the Biobank, and have identified about a dozen features of their appearance and anatomy, as well as related genes that influenced their reproductive success.

For this, the researchers calculated the typical number of children is characteristic for a given set of British, and compared it with how many children people have, for example, high or low body weight. Any deviation from the «norm» pointed out that Visscher and his team are dealing with the consequences of two types of natural selection – stabilizing or directional.

The first type of selection is associated with the presence of a kind of «Golden mean», for example, the ideal growth women, the winner of which will have the most success in procreation. The second works on the principle of «more is better» or «more is worse»: the earlier a woman gives birth first child, the fewer children she has on the average happens. Similarly, the number of children affected by the level of education that confirms the recent findings of geneticists, watching the evolution of the inhabitants of Iceland.

The study of these factors, as scientists hope, will help evolutionists to understand what drives today human evolution, and what social factors such as poverty, availability of food and education, can influence its progress the most.