Is it possible to breathe liquid

CC BY 2.0 / Martin Cox / Chica submarina 1Ученые working system liquid breathingIs it possible to breathe liquidCC BY 2.0 / Martin Cox / Chica submarina 1

Since in 2016, the Foundation for advanced studies (FPI) has approved the draft of liquid breath, the public is keenly interested in its success. The recent demonstration of the capabilities of this technology literally blew up the Internet. At the meeting of Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin with President of Serbia Aleksandar Vucic, the rate plunged for two minutes in the tank with a special liquid saturated with oxygen. After the procedure the dog, according to Deputy Prime Minister, is alive and well. What was this liquid?

«Scientists have synthesized a non-existent substance perfluorocarbons, in which the intermolecular forces are so small that they are considered something intermediate between a liquid and a gas. They dissolve the oxygen in 18-20 times more than water,» — says the doctor of medical Sciences Evgeny Mayevsky, Professor, head of laboratory energy of biological systems at the Institute of theoretical and experimental Biophysics RAS, one of the founders of perftoran, the so-called blue blood. He is working on medical applications of perfluorocarbons since 1979.

Oxygen will enter the blood from the fluid that fills the lungs. It can dissolve a portable blood carbon dioxide.

The principle of liquid breathing well utilized by fish. Their gills pass through a tremendous amount of water to take dissolved oxygen out there and give blood. In humans, all gas exchange is through lungs, surface area of which is approximately 45 times greater than the surface area of the body. To chase them through the air we inhale and exhale. In this we are helped by the respiratory muscles. Because perfluorocarbons are denser than air to breathe on the surface through the fluid is very problematic.

«These are science and art to select such perfluorocarbons, to facilitate the work of the respiratory muscles and to prevent lung damage. Much depends on the duration of the process liquid breathing, forcibly or spontaneously it occurs,» concludes the researcher.

However, fundamental obstacles to ensure that people were breathing liquid, no. Eugene Majewski believes that the demonstrated technology the Russian scientists will bring to practical application in the next few years.

From the intensive care unit until rescue divers

Scientists began to consider the perfluorocarbons as an alternative respiratory gas mixtures in the middle of the last century. In 1962 he published an article by Dutch researcher Johannes Kylstra (Johannes Kylstra), «Of mice-fish» (Of mice as fish) described the experience with a rodent placed in oxygenated saline solution at a pressure of 160 atmospheres. The animal remained alive for 18 hours. Then Telstra began experimenting with perfluorocarbons, and in 1966 at the children’s hospital of Cleveland (USA) physiologist Leland Clark (Leland C. Clark) tried to apply them to improve breathing in newborns with cystic fibrosis. It is a genetic disease in which a baby is born with underdeveloped lungs, his alveoli collapse that obstructs breathing. The lungs of such patients are washed with saline, saturated with oxygen. Clark decided that it was better to do it this paper we liquid. This researcher subsequently did much for the development of liquid breathing.

«In our experiments in small animals had suffered several light, but they survived,» — says Eugene Majewski.

System breath with fluid developed in the closed category in the institutions of Leningrad and Moscow, and since 2008 at the Department of Aerohydrodynamics at the Saratov state aerospace University. Where did the capsule type «mermaid» for development of liquid breathing in case of emergency rescue divers from depths. From 2015, the development experienced in Sevastopol on the topic «Terek», supported by the FPI.

The legacy of the atomic project

Perfluorocarbons (perfluorocarbons) are organic compounds where all hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine atoms. This emphasizes the Latin prefix «per-«, which means completeness, integrity. These substances are not found in nature. They tried to synthesize in the late XIX century, but really succeeded only after world war II, when it was needed for the nuclear industry. Their production in the USSR was established academician Ivan Ludvigovich Knunyants, the founder of the laboratory of organofluorine compounds in INEOS RAS.

«The perfluorocarbons used in the production of enriched uranium. In the USSR the largest was developed by the State Institute of applied chemistry in Leningrad. Currently, they are released in Kirovo-Chepetsk and Perm,» says Majewski.

Externally perfluorocarbon liquids look like water, but is considerably more dense. They do not react with alkalis and acids, not oxidized, decomposed at a temperature over 600 degrees. In fact, they are considered chemically inert compounds. Due to these properties performpreinit materials used in intensive care and regenerative medicine.

«There’s an operation — bronchial lavage, when a person is under anesthesia, washed one lung, and then another. In the early 80s together with the Volgograd surgeon A. P. Savin, we came to the conclusion that this procedure is best done with perfluorocarbon emulsion», — cites the example of Eugene Majewski.

© RIA Novosti / Vsevolod to Taraseviciene in fotosencibilizace a blood substitute on the basis of the PFC perftoranIs it possible to breathe liquid© RIA Novosti / Vsevolod to Taraseviciene in fotosencibilizace a blood substitute on the basis of the PFC perftoran

These substances are actively used in ophthalmology, to accelerate the healing of wounds, in the diagnosis of diseases, including cancer. In recent years, a method of NMR diagnosis with the use of perfluorocarbons to develop abroad. In our country these studies are successfully conducted by a team of scientists from Moscow state University. M. V. Lomonosov under the direction of academician Alexei Khokhlov, INEOS, ITEB, IIF (Serpukhov).

Not to mention the fact that these substances make oils, lubricants for systems that operate at high temperatures, including jet engines.