Scientists from the US have created a drug that «perfect» suppresses HIV

© Photo : NIAIDТ-cell infected with HIVScientists from the US have created a drug that «perfect» suppresses HIV© Photo : NIAID

. Molecular biologists from Yale have created a super-efficient drug that inhibits the enzyme that helps HIV to incorporate itself into the DNA of cells, and defended it with the help of mice from infection, says the article, published in the journal PNAS.

«A single dose of nanoparticles containing our «substance-1», protected T cells from mice of mass death and kept the concentration of virus particles at the minimum level for three weeks. «Substance-1» is able to deal with the usual clinical strains of HIV, and with his «unbreakable» versions,» write Karen Anderson (Karen Anderson) and her colleagues from Yale University (USA).

As the scientists explain, today, HIV patients can live for tens of years, thanks to antiretroviral drugs – substances that suppress various steps of viral replication in the cells of the body. As they often have strong side effects, doctors are often forced to stop taking them for a few weeks.

At the termination of their reception of HIV «gets out of the trenches» and starts to rapidly replicate itself, often returning to the initial extent of disease for three or two weeks. In recent years, scientists are actively trying to find drugs or antibodies that would help to avoid such «counterattacks» of the virus, or would «kick» the virus out of the cells.

Anderson and her colleagues for several years studying the structure of one of the major components of the HIV called reverse transcriptase. It is a special enzyme that the virus uses to «read» their single helix RNA and turn it into a double-chain DNA that can be integrated into the genome of the infected cell.

Many types antiretrovirus drugs, as the scientists explain, inhibits the activity of this protein, but none of them does this with 100% reliability and safety. Part of viruses is slowly becoming immune to their action, but by themselves, these substances have a number of deadly side effects, not to allow them indefinitely.

Anderson and her colleagues were able to solve this problem, spending most of the experiments on the real samples of cells and viruses, and their virtual counterparts. Using computer models of various versions of reverse transcriptase, scientists have studied how the interactions of various substances and drugs, already known to science, and selected from them the most effective.

Opening several dozen such molecules able to inhibit this enzyme, scientists have tried to improve their work, changing the structure of the key elements connected with reverse transcriptase. The fruit of these efforts was the discovery of molecules, named «substance-1», interacting with the virus is about 2.5 thousands of times more active than its progenitor.

Having achieved similar results, scientists synthesized its real counterpart and checked out his work on cultures of immune cells infected by HIV in combination with other antiretroviral drugs or in special nanoparticles, which gradually isolated «substance-1» in the environment.

As shown by these experiments, «substance-1» enhance the effects of other drugs and effectively inhibited the replication of the virus, even in small doses, without causing any side effects that forced scientists to move on to preclinical trials that they conducted on mice with a human immune system.

These experiments showed that even a single dose of nanoparticles with the «substance-1» protected mice from infection for 30 days if they have not been infected before the start of experiments and kept it on minimum low otherwise. All this, as scientists believe, suggests that this compound may become the basis for a safe and long-running drugs and means of prevention of HIV.