In the animal world-mathematicians: who are best able to consider

© Illustration RIA Novosti . Depositphotos / ElviraDraatОбезьяны understand numbers within ten and how to compareIn the animal world-mathematicians: who are best able to consider© Illustration RIA Novosti . Depositphotos / ElviraDraatПодпишись to daily updates RIA Science

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Most living creatures — from insects to primates — every day to solve simple arithmetic problems. About why animals numeracy and who in the wild will not survive without mathematics — in the material RIA Novosti.

Man as a species has got a unique brain: a large (compared to body weight), and incredibly complex. Therefore, Homo sapiens is able to learn, to think abstractly, to consider and to talk. The fee for cognitive ability is high: if at rest, the brain of our closest relatives, the primates, is content to eight percent of the total reserves of the organism, the human mental apparatus consumes up to a quarter of the body’s energy.

According to the latest research, to operate with abstract concepts and count to ten, does not necessarily have in my head is so heavy and greedy for power «computer». Many animals, whose brains are in the tens of thousands of times smaller than a human, quite capable of elementary mathematics and even know what the zero.

Bee «about zero»

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) is not only able to count, but also perceive the concept of zero — correctly include it in the number series, say scientists in a recent article of the journal Science.

In Royal Melbourne Institute of technology (Australia) conducted the following experiment. Drops of sweet water scientists lure the bees to the screen with a card on which was depicted from two to five objects.

Of course, the most extraordinary abilities possessed African grey parrot named Alex, who could count to six, familiar with the concept of zero and even learn about a hundred words. And he is not just repeating people, but it was communicated.

Slightly inferior to Alex and the crows of the species Corvus moneduloides living in New Caledonia and the nearby Islands. Scientists are always attracted to high intelligence. These birds use tools: of broken sticks make special hooks, which are extracted beetles from under the bark of trees. They are able to plan actions and solve the puzzles on the uptake for five-year olds.

In addition, as found by the neuroscientists from the University of tübingen (Germany), new Caledonian crows count to five and they in the brain has a special region, responsible for working with abstract numbers.

Among mammals the ability to account showed dolphins, elephants, hyenas and of course primates. The most talented macaque-rhesus (Macaca mulatta). They can’t just count the number of objects, comparing the result, but also to perform simple arithmetic.

Researchers from Harvard medical school (USA) have taught three rhesus monkeys to add and subtract numbers using Arabic numerals from zero to 25. It took four months. Result in the monkeys piled two characters, comparing the sum of the third and gave 70-90 percent of correct answers.

The mistakes made by the monkeys in the study most often concerned with similar numbers. For example, adding six to eight, the monkey could obtain thirteen. Similarly operates and the human brain. People are better two small than two big. People will notice the difference between two and four sparrows sitting on a tree, and it is unlikely — between flocks of 20 and 22 birds.