In Japan run experiments on humans for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease with stem cells

© Fotolia / Alexander Raths Scientist working in the laboratory. Archival photoIn Japan run experiments on humans for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease with stem cells© Fotolia / Alexander Raths Subscribe to a daily e-mail of RIA Science

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Japanese scientists from Kyoto University will begin August 1, the world’s first clinical trials on humans for the creation and transplantation of nerve cells from artificial multifunctional stem cells for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, reports the Agency Kyodo, citing sources in scientific circles.

Initially, a group of scientists led by Professor Jun Takahashi will create nerve cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Then they are transplanted into the brain of a patient with Parkinson’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease, which has so far not responded to the treatment, leads to loss of mobility because of the reduction in the number of nerve cells and they produce a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine (dopamine). Lack of dopamine leads to increased inertia and slower cognitive processes. While medicine can only alleviate the symptoms.

In 2012 a group of scientists from the University of Kyoto first in the world conducted an experiment by transplanting nerve cells derived from iPS stem cells, in the Primate brain with Parkinson’s disease. Six months later, with the help of brain scanning, scientists were able to ensure that the transplanted cells produce dopamine. Scientists also noted improvement of motor function of the monkey by 10%. Movement disorders — also one of the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. In addition, the specialists did not reveal any formations in the brain of a Primate within a few years after surgery.

First artificial multifunctional stem cells embrionalnuju origin, the so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (induced pluripotent stem cells — iPS) are able to form healthy cells of different organs, was received by the Professor of Kyoto University Shinya Yamanaka in 2006.

Scientists managed to create stem cells from normal cells of human skin. This discovery removed the pre-existing ethical problem of using embryonic human cells, and gave the prospect of creating tissues and organs to replace damaged or lost for illnesses and injuries. Building material will be the patients ‘ cells.

For more than ten years after the discovery of iPS cells, scientists have learned to create cells of various organs. The main problem hindering the use of such cells in medicine remains a high risk of developing cancer. The world’s first surgery using iPS cells was held in September 2014. 70-year-old patient with severe retinal disease is age-related macular degeneration (macular degeneration) — took skin cells, which have grown artificial stem cells iPS. Of them were grown cells of the retinal pigment epithelium of the retina, which was implanted during the surgery.

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