Astronomers found out where the hottest planet of the Universe

© Mark Garlick/University of WarwickТак the artist imagined the gas giant GJ 436bAstronomers found out where the hottest planet of the Universe© Mark Garlick/University of WarwickПодпишись to daily updates RIA Science

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Many «hot Jupiters», the «hell» planets of the Universe, there are directly in the vicinity of a star, and not just migrate there later, as earlier believed by scientists. To such conclusion came the scientists, who published an article in the electronic library arXiv.org.

«Our calculations show that at least part of the «hot Jupiters» were formed in the same place where they are now. Of course, this does not preclude their migration in principle, but suggests that such events are considered before the norm, in fact, are extremely rare,» — says Konstantin Batygin of Caltech in Pasadena (USA).

«Hot Jupiter» heated astronomers call gas giants that are far from their stars only 2.2-75 million miles (in the Solar system, even mercury is coming to the star closer than 46 million kilometers), so atmospheres of these planets reign really hellish temperatures — around 1,000 degrees Celsius.

The opening of the first «hot Jupiters», as noted by Batygin and his colleague Elizabeth Bailey (Elizabeth Baily), was a big surprise for scientists, who began to argue how and where any such planet.

«The solar system has long been the only example of how a planetary system looks like and how it can be shaped. For example, we have long believed that relying on the masses of mercury and the other inner worlds that large planets can’t form in the immediate vicinity of stars. «Hot Jupiters» did not fit into this picture» — continues scientist.

Today, many planetary scientists believe that this anomaly can be explained with the same mechanism, which describes the birth of the giant planets of the Solar system. «Hot Jupiters», as their cold namesake, was born in the cold part of a protoplanetary disc, and later migrate towards the star due to gravitational interactions with other «germ» of the planets.

The latest observations of emerging stars and protoplanetary disks, contrary to this idea, forced Bailey to formulate an alternative theory in which «hot Jupiters» can form directly next to the star.

Their «fetuses», as noted planetary scientist, are the tens and hundreds of «supertall» — a large rocky object whose mass exceeds the earth’s occurring inside the primary of the nebula in the first moments of life Shine. Almost all of them are subsequently thrown out of the star system, but some have large enough mass to quickly assemble all the surrounding reserves of gas and dust and become a gas giant.

As found by Batygin and Bailey, the planets arising in this way will be several distinctive features that separates them from «hot Jupiters» — migrants. In particular, their mass will be a special way connected with the order in which the point of the orbit they are in. In addition, many of them have to revolve around the sun not alone but in the company of one or more «supertall».

Such features, according to planetary scientists, has a significant part of the already discovered «hot Jupiters». It is likely that they were not born on the outskirts of protoplanetary disks, and directly next to the luminaries. This, in turn, indicates that not all the planetary family emerge the same way as the Solar system, that would complicate the estimation of their habitability and search for extraterrestrial life.

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