Physics did not find traces of other measurements in gravitational waves

© Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt Gravitational waves generated during the merger of pulsarsPhysics did not find traces of other measurements in gravitational waves© Goethe-Universitat Frankfurt Subscribe to the daily newsletter of the RIA Science

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Observing the effects of the merger of two pulsars have helped scientists to find the first reliable hint that gravitational waves propagate in four-dimensional space, and that «extra» dimensions do not exist. Their findings were presented in the Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics.

«There are dozens of alternative theories that complement the theory of relativity and explaining the nature of dark matter and dark energy, which includes additional dimensions. If they exist, they can interact with gravity waves and weaken them,» explains May, Fischbach (Maya Fishbach) from the University of Chicago (USA).

Kaleidoscope Universe

Today there’s no scientific consensus about what is our universe four-dimensional or more dimensions, some of which we don’t see for different reasons. The existence of these dimensions, as physicists hope, will help to reconcile the theory of relativity and quantum physics to create a theory of quantum gravity to explain what happens inside black holes.

For example, superstring theory posits that the universe was originally ten-dimensional born and had one temporal and nine spatial dimensions. The part of the supporters of this theory believe that the «extra» six dimensions imploded and closed up on themselves. Other physicists believe that our four-dimensional universe is only a part of the multidimensional multiverse (multiverse), and the remaining six dimensions we can’t see and explore.

The construction and successful launch of the gravitational detectors LIGO and ViRGO, as noted by Fischbach and colleagues, gave scientists the first chance to examine these theories by observing how the spread of gravitational and electromagnetic waves from the same object in space.

The first real opportunity to conduct such experiments appeared in August last year, when both the Observatory and dozens of «ordinary» telescope detected a flare GW170817 that occurred in a distant galaxy in the merger of two neutron stars.

Using the data obtained during these observations, Fischbach and her colleagues have tested several popular theories, minimally extending the theory of relativity and assumes the existence of one or more parallel dimensions with which they interact, gravitational waves.

The secrets of the universe

In General, such «multidimensional» universe should behave in the same way as «ordinary» three-dimensional universe. On the other hand, the gravitational waves it will fade faster than «Einstein’s universe», as they will lose an additional portion of energy to interact with the «extra» dimensions.

Accordingly, the existence of such measurements can be checked, if you know the distance to the source of gravitational waves and how fast they should fade in three-dimensional and multidimensional space. With predecessors GW170817 such a check is impossible, since their exact position was unknown.

Calculating the distance to the neutron star at their dying light «Crick», Fischbach and her colleagues calculated the rate at which fading gravitational waves as they motion to the Earth, and determined the number of measurements using two different sets of key cosmological constants.

In fact, and in another case, say the cosmologists, their number was equal or close to four. This suggests that the «extra» dimensions do not exist – we live in three spatial and one time dimension, whose behavior is described by the theory of relativity.

As noted by Fischbach, these observations are «close» most, but not all of the alternative calculations of Einstein. Detectors LIGO and ViRGO does not yet have sufficient sensitivity to «see» traces of parallel worlds in the polarization of gravitational waves. Subsequent updates and measurements «twist» fluctuations in space-time will help scientists find a definitive answer to this question.