Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state

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Powerful flash in the Sun, leaving footprints in the annual rings of trees and called «events Miyake», allow up to a year to determine the age of archaeological findings or to test the historical hypothesis. The participants of the international project COSMIC has proven planetary scale of events Miyake.

What killed the state of Bohai

According to historical Chronicles, the state of Bohai in Manchuria fell in 926 ad. According to one hypothesis, it destroyed a volcanic eruption baekdu is one of the largest in the history of mankind. But the exact date of the disaster was unknown. All I could say to scientists: it was about the thousandth year of our era.

Radiocarbon analysis of buried under the ashes Pektusan larch trees showed that the tree died between 920 and 950 years.

The essence of this method is to measure the concentration of the radioactive isotope 14C, which accumulate all the living organisms in the process of photosynthesis or food. After death the process is terminated, and the isotopes decay. Knowing the rate of decay (it is constant) and half-life (about 5730 years), establish the time of death of the body.

Buried larch lived in 264 years (this was evidenced by tree rings). So, in 774 BC she was growing up. Scientists grasped this fact.

The fact that in 774 year was the most powerful solar flares that produced a proton storm. The flux of high-energy particles hit the magnetosphere, reached the Earth’s atmosphere and launched a cascade of reactions that result in the concentration of 14C was off the scale.

The start date of the event can be set with accuracy to one month. For example, the first open event Miyake began in July of the year 774 and lasted until 780.

Anomalies of the radiocarbon in the wood was explaining gamma ray bursts, supernova explosions, comet, galactic cosmic radiation, but astronomers believe that all the matter in the solar cosmic rays of extreme force. For the inhabitants of the Earth they are not dangerous. In the sky appear at night lightning and a bright red Aurora.

The traces of events Miyake in the form of anomalies of radioactive isotopes of beryllium (10Be), and chlorine (36Cl), which has a cosmic origin, found in the glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica.

14C anomalies in the «events Miyake» 775 and 995 years

Dendrochronology requires protection

Opening Miyake have provided archaeologists, historians, climatologists and astronomers a very accurate tool for Dating events and test different hypotheses about the state of the climate system in the past. Therefore, the 14C spikes were specifically to look at trees in different regions of the world.

Interestingly, in 2012-2013, were the work, expressing doubts about the correctness of age determination on tree rings. For dendrochronologia this was the occasion to prove your point of view using the Miyake event.

«It was necessary to obtain data for a greater number of chronologies from different parts of the world and try to understand and explain patterns of these bursts. With Ulf of Buntgen of the Swiss Federal research Institute forest snow and landscape (he now works in the Department of geography, University of Cambridge. — Approx. ed.), the idea was born to combine the efforts of the dendrochronological community,» says RIA Novosti Alexander kirdyanov, Institute of forest Siberian branch RAS Siberian Federal University and Cambridge University.

So there was a volunteer international project COSMIC.

«Ulf turned to scientists who have the necessary wood material, asking him to take more time to conduct the Dating of tree rings and send to Switzerland. I, like many of my colleagues, been working together with Ulf Boonthanom. Some of our tried and tested along with the materiel received much more fame in the world due to this cooperation. So many people have responded,» continues kirdyanov.

For the study required samples of the places where built tree-ring chronologies longer than thousands of years.

«Not so much. In Russia the long — Yamal, covering more than seven thousand years old, built in our laboratory. Krasnoyarsk dendrochronology belong to two and three thousand years of chronology for Taimyr and North Yakutia (Indigirka). In recent years, build a scale for the Altai lasting more than three and a half thousand years. The authors of these tree-ring chronologies known in the community. They were invited to the planned collaboration,» explains RIA Novosti participant of the COSMIC Rashit Hantemirov, leading researcher, laboratory of dendrochronology, Institute of ecology of plants and animals, Ural branch of RAS (Ekaterinburg).

Trees retain traces of cosmic events© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Quirkyalone in expedition samples of different ages.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Quirkyalone in expedition samples of different ages.© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukharskaya sample tree.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukharskaya sample tree.© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukarskih search of wood for dendrochronological age determination.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukarskih search of wood for dendrochronological age determination.© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukarskih all wood on the Yamal Peninsula is located in the river sediments.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Kukarskih all wood on the Yamal Peninsula is located in the river sediments.© Ipae/Rashit kantemirovec the petrified wood is from the Polar Ural, with the rings belonging to 770-780 years of our era.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Ipae/Rashit kantemirovec the petrified wood is from the Polar Ural, with the rings belonging to 770-780 years of our era.© Photo : Alexander Kijanowska samples of wood to determine the age of Tuva.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Alexander Kijanowska samples of wood to determine the age of Tuva.© Photo : Alexander Kijanebalola in Tuva in search of old trees.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Alexander Kijanebalola in Tuva in search of old trees.© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Makeskypeoutcall tree, lost in 5016 year BC.Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Photo : Ipae UB RAS V. V. Makeskypeoutcall tree, lost in 5016 year BC. /
Bursts found in both hemispheres

For the study selected the series of samples 44 27 species of trees from five continents, the age of which was accurately determined by annual rings, and covered 770-780 990-1000 and years of our era.

«Right dendrochronological Dating, and this is the key to quality work, each participant has fulfilled himself. Get the primary wood takes years, if not decades, and involves a huge financial investment because it requires expeditions to remote regions», — says Alexander kirdyanov. Space storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© RIA Novosti / Yuri to Calopresti fotobanka in the Wake of the Yermak: scientists have confirmed, the speed of development of Siberia

«To be able to provide exactly dated tree rings for every year of the last seven thousand years, had to work twenty or thirty years,» adds Hantemirov.

To determine the concentration of 14C used the new method — accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The installation separates the rare isotopes from the background, in this case, the space 14C isotopes from stable 12C having an earthly origin.

According to Kirdyanov, in the framework of the COSMIC spent 484 measurements on a compact accelerator facility at the radiocarbon laboratory of the Higher technical school of Zurich.

The results of the study the participants of the COSMIC outlined in a recent article in Nature Communication. Their conclusion — events Miyake 774 993 and years recorded with high time accuracy in both hemispheres. So that gave rise to their phenomenon affects the entire planet and leaves traces in the trees, grown in different climatic conditions. In addition, the researchers found a gradual decrease of the anomaly from the North to the equator, but it still awaits an explanation. And the main thing — confirmed the data of dendrochronology.

«We are now confident in the correctness of those dendrochronology that were analysed in the work in the time interval from 774 ad to the current time», — says Alexander kirdyanov.

© Springer NatureСеть samples that participated in the research project COSMICSpace storm revealed the mystery of the death of the Chinese state© Springer NatureСеть samples that participated in the research project COSMIC

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