25 years of the coup: the participants of the event regret the entry of tanks into the Moscow

© RIA Novosti / Metallisable the October events of 1993. The fire in the White house after troops opened fire on him.25 years of the coup: the participants of the event regret the entry of tanks into the Moscow© RIA Novosti / Metallisable

25 years after the events of the end of September — beginning of October 1993, which is popularly called «black October» and was the sharpest in the history of modern Russia constitutional crisis, the key «witnesses» told RIA Novosti that changed your perspective on the past. However, some of them regret the introduction of tanks to Moscow missed the chance to conduct elections to Parliament and the refusal of the prosecution of instigators of the conflict.

The constitutional crisis of 1993 was a continuation of the confrontation the first President of Russia Boris Yeltsin and his supporters with opponents of reformist politicians led by Vice President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman of the Supreme Council Ruslan Khasbulatov. Political disputes escalated into armed clashes in downtown Moscow, the assault of Ostankino television center and city hall, as well as the introduction of military equipment and the firing of the White house. According to various sources, the victims of «black October» was about 160 people.

Re-election of the Parliament and runing court

According to the head of administration of President Boris Yeltsin from 1993 to 1996 Sergey Filatov, autumn events of 25 years ago should not be seen only as a conflict of 1993, because he was born much earlier.

«The Supreme Council wanted to remove the key figures of the government, to make reforms passed under their control, which of course was impossible, as Yeltsin in 1991, was chosen to strengthen the Executive power and to accelerate reform. This was all done, and to give all other power was extremely dangerous,» he said.

Filatov admitted that although his assessment of the events of autumn 1993 had not changed, he now regrets that it was not possible to hold elections to the Parliament immediately after the historic April referendum, dubbed «Yes. Yes. No. Yes.»

«If we just after the April referendum held elections to the Parliament, it would be better. Here I am… But intervened the constitutional court — right on the run, tripped when he announced that the results of the referendum have no legal force and can only be viewed as a survey of public opinion,» he said.

The former head of administration of the first President explained that the dissolution of Parliament after the referendum would have passed in peace and not aggravated the situation in the country to their limits as it happened in the fall. Therefore, in his opinion, a heavy responsibility for the events of October 1993 are members of the constitutional court.

«Do not understand the situation, violating its rules and the law, so irresponsible to do what they could not. I told (the Chairman of the COP Valery) Zorkin: «Keep in mind, the responsibility for the consequences of the rebellion will be on you because you provoked him and blessed,» he shared memories of Filatov.

Without tanks

Not changed position in relation to the events of autumn 1993, Alexander Korzhakov, who headed the presidential security Service of the Russian Federation: how 25 years ago he was convinced that tanks in the capital to introduce was necessary, in order to give «a decent response» protesting side. The main regret of the policy — the loss of life during the conflict.

«The situation then was the serious one who has experienced it, he knows what it was 50 to 50. The proposal to enter the tanks and to respond to those who on the eve stormed Ostankino, was necessary. I don’t know what would happen if we did not answer. When they went to the assault of Ostankino, it killed 140 people, mostly innocent people, and the next day at the White house has killed 10 people and could be more victims,» said Korzhakov.

He noted that the shelling of the White house were not live ammunition, but blanks. «If I had the shells, the White house would not be… It was just a significant moment,» explained Korzhakov.

According to him, in 1993, those who fought for democracy and reforms, was still romantics, who saw the insurgent deputies as irreconcilable opponents. Too late, said the head of the security Service of Yeltsin, talking with some members of the Supreme Council, he realized that «they wanted good for Russia».

Useful talks

25 years of the coup: the participants of the event regret the entry of tanks into the Moscow© RIA Novosti/Avrora . Nikita Tokarev, Elena Kosova, Mindlin Arseniy»Nonprincipal characters Oct. 1993″. Interactive project RIA to Novostirussia the conflict and was trying by peaceful means: were organized in the negotiations between the two warring sides in the first World hotel near the White house, and later in the residence of Patriarch Alexy II, however, the success they brought.

One of the negotiators from supporters of the President by the former Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov, who later published a book about these difficult days.

«These little talks gave more to change the principles on the one hand and on the other hand: essentially, she and the other side has not found a common ground. But these talks were useful because (removed) voltage. Although at the time it was only a few weeks, but this time allowed a degree of conflict to be considerably lower, and yet after all was not a lot of blood,» Luzhkov told RIA Novosti.

He added that the tension in the society in those autumn days was crazy, especially it was felt in Moscow.

«I can tell, still managed from this terrible madness to leave in the first place, not to bring the case before the war, the civil war, which we always senseless, brutal and bloody,» said former Moscow mayor.

According to Luzhkov, he was struck by the desire to «opponents» to regain lost power, although by then it was clear that the support of the people and the army they have.

«Was just a fetish, which obscured the mind, and all those actions were meaningless… but there were enough reasonable people, but some had been very aggressive… the Transition to a conversational level, the level of discussion level of agreement – it was virtually impossible because of such desperate determination after all the last time to try and change,» — said Luzhkov.

The media evaluation

25 years of the coup: the participants of the event regret the entry of tanks into the Moscow© RIA Novostirussia on the brink of civil war. Shooting 3-4 October 1993 godasa the events of the end of September-beginning of October 1993 in Moscow, without exaggeration, watched the whole world. After the storming of Ostankino, when broadcasting from the television station was dropped, the Russians had only one opportunity to see what happens — watch the second channel, the broadcast booth which was at 5-th street Yamskogo field. Face of the second channel then became a journalist Nikolay Svanidze, who all night on the October 4 broadcast from the main news.

«The only TV that worked was on 5th street Yamskogo fields, where the Russian channel RTR. Here we are from here and went along with Svetlana Sorokina, in particular, all night and told us what a situation», — said Svanidze.

According to the journalist, Yeltsin was no other way but to issue a decree № 1400 «On the gradual constitutional reform in the Russian Federation» to prevent standing at the threshold of a civil war.

«It’s all very complicated, layered situation, which since then is illuminated on only one side, namely the anti-Yeltsin. And it is absolutely wrong. Yeltsin needed to get out of the legitimate field, because the legislation was something the old Soviet and coming out of it, he would have been just doomed to failure and all, and as a result he managed to avoid a civil war then», — said Svanidze.

The journalist added that from the very beginning stood on the side of President Yeltsin and after a quarter-century, his account of events has not changed.

«I think that the victory of those people who sat in the White house, headed by Khasbulatov, Rutskoi… that would be terrible for the country if they won,» said Svanidze.

The court, instead of Amnesty

Participants in the 1993 events of the supporters of the first President of the Russian Federation expressed regret that the main instigators, calling for a military solution to the conflict, the overthrow of the President, went on trial and was pardoned.

«If you review those events, then not all should be condemned. But I blame the three is (Alexander) Rutskoi, (Ruslan) Khasbulatov and (albert) Makashov, who had to judge: deaths on their conscience,» said Korzhakov.

The same position is shared and Filatov, sorry about Amnesty the main defendants in the autumn 1993 events.

«If we talk, I regret, is the fact that discontinued the criminal proceedings against the instigators of the coup. It had to finish and show who is who, really», — told ex-the head of administration of the first President of the Russian Federation.

In turn, Svanidze noted that many of the participants of the conflict from the Supreme Council was not only convicted, but was subsequently replaced gosdolzhnosti.

«All those who sat in the White house and resisted were immediately rehabilitated, many of them later occupied high posts in the state. Alexander Vladimirovich Rutskoi, which was sort of a shadow President in the White house appointed, he also then became Governor of one of the regions. They were all forgiven. Then all forgot about it and began to speak of the anti-Yeltsin of the philippics, which, in General, they have a moral right-that have no», — said the journalist.