Bloody oil. How does the black market black gold

© AP Photo / Hasan JamaliДобыча oil in the middle EastBloody oil. How does the black market black gold© AP Photo / Hasan Jamali

The global illegal market of oil — the illegal extraction of black gold, oil piracy, theft of fuel and its shadow sale — estimated at $ 133 billion a year. The main players here are the drug cartels and illegal paramilitary groups of various kinds. How does the shadow of the oil industry — in the material RIA Novosti.

Such a different production

Among commodity markets of oil — the largest, with an annual output approaching 500 billion dollars. Legal sales should be added, and the shadow — 133 billion.

This, incidentally, is more than the market capitalization of oil giant British Petroleum ($111 billion) or the entire economy of such oil States as Kuwait (110 billion).

The black oil market follows the same structure as the official oil industry: extraction, transport, processing, sales. However, there are specifics.

In the first place — in the production. In the legal trade lead, Saudi Arabia, USA and Russia, in the shadow — Mexico, Nigeria and Iraq.

It is not only that the world leaders official, the oil industry know all, and their counterparts from the informal sector are known only to law enforcement officers because it is the Mexican cartels, Nigerian and Kurdish separatists, as well as middle Eastern terrorist groups.

Production here means something quite different. The official industry is drilling and pumping oil from the fields. In the shadow — for example, in Mexico — in the first «milking» oil pipelines through illegal tapping.

With today’s cost of black gold one frame allows ten minutes to pump from the pipe of fuel per hundred thousand dollars. The profit is higher even than from the sale of drugs.

Not surprisingly, the state-owned company Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) identify ten to fifteen new frames in the day. As reported by Mexican media, tie-in pipelines — the «business billions of pesos, practiced by both professionals and Amateurs everywhere, where there are pipelines of Pemex».

As a result, only the section of the pipeline between the cities of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta in the last five years through tie-stole about 2.7 million barrels of oil worth almost $ 300 million.

Only through illegally embedded drain cocks from Mexican pipelines daily flows of approximately 23 500 barrels worth more than half a million dollars.

To tie the cranes to the existing pipeline under high pressure, requires highly skilled professionals and expensive equipment. Therefore, on the first roles in the business — rich Mexican drug cartels.

However, knockouts are not limited. Another common way the shadow of oil production in Mexico — attack on the fuel tankers. In the Mexican state of Tabasco recorded about a dozen such attacks each month.

Cars often turn over, which leads to the oil spill and fires, people die. It happened in March of 2016: the tanker overturned, a local rushed to her with canisters to collect the flowing fuel. A stray spark, the fire — killed more than twenty people, including children.

Serious players

On the Mexican black market oil, the dominant position holds the Zetas drug cartel, organized in late 1990-ies of the former members of the Mexican special Forces.

In addition to the trafficking of drugs, arms, people, Zetas controls «milking» oil pipelines in the Northern Mexican States, to intercept tankers and carries out smuggling in the US, where the stolen fuel is sold twice cheaper than market price.

According to estimates by Mexican experts, the cartel controls about 40% of the shadow fuel market in Mexico, earning it more than $ 400 million a year.

The share of the cartel Jalisco New Generation accounts for approximately 22% of black oil market turnover of more than $ 210 million a year.

In late October, the U.S. government announced a record reward of ten million dollars for information about the leader of this cartel, Nemesio. Cervantes nicknamed El Mencho.

An unprecedented amount of head El Menco due to the war that the Jalisco New Generation unleashed with the drug cartel Sinaloa for control of Tijuana. This city on the border with the United States serves as a gateway for import to the United States from Mexico all sorts of contraband, primarily drugs.

Jalisco New Generation under rukovodstvom El Menco seeks to expand oil direction of illegal business, increasing the volume of smuggling of black gold. However, Sinaloa, specializing in drug trafficking and occupying a very modest position in the shadow of nefteindustria (about six percent of the market), it actively prevents.

The result of differences in the business strategies of two drug cartels — the war in Tijuana, which claimed this year more than two thousand lives.

In July, the city killed 253 people in August to 211 in September 214.

The Americans are hoping that the arrest of El Menco if you don’t put an end to this bloodshed, then at least reduce the number of victims.

This Is Africa

As in the oil producing areas of Nigeria are active separatists, the whole industry infrastructure, from drilling rigs to pipelines and oil storage — regularly exposed to armed attacks.

Nigerian «black oil» is also a practice of tapping into pipelines. However, unlike the Mexican cartels, they can’t afford skilled professionals and expensive equipment. Do it simpler, though no less effectively.

Usually give a bribe to the pipeline operator, which will suspend pumping oil through the pipe during the time required for the frame.

There’s even standard fare on this service or six thousand dollars, a half of the annual income of the average Nigerian.

Sometimes the same «oil» just blow up the pipeline. Bleeding stops, and you can without hassle to punch in the pipe drain tap somewhere away from the blast site.

According to estimates by the Nigerian national petroleum company, only from the pipeline between the cities of Lagos and Ilorin thus annually kidnap of oil worth more than $ 300 million.

If Mexican drug cartels are taking over nececessary, the Nigerian «oil companies» are engaged in a banal piracy by attacking tankers in the Gulf of Guinea.

Usually the crew locked in the hold, and oil is being overwhelmed by small vessels transporting fuel to neighboring countries.

According to experts of the Atlantic Council, 80% of the fuel requirements of the state of Benin is today covered by oil stolen by the «black oil» in neighboring Nigeria.

Knowledgeable people say that an Armada of small boats these possess high-ranking officials of the Nigerian national security Service. They are also in command of pirates and organize attacks on tankers in the Gulf of Guinea.

Iraqi Kurds, Baghdad without the knowledge mining on their land oil traditional ways and smuggling exporting to Turkey, against the background of Mexican and Nigerian counterparts on the shady oil business look dull traditionalists, and almost law-abiding citizens. Although ranked third in the world in terms of illegal transactions with black gold.