The day when Hitler seized power. Was it possible to stop the Nazis

© AFP 2018Рейхсканцлер Germany Adolf HitlerThe day when Hitler seized power. Was it possible to stop the Nazis© AFP 2018

. Eighty-five years ago in Germany, elections to the Parliament, where the Nazi party won an absolute majority. Without this, Hitler’s power would be complete. The elections took place unopposed in the ballot had only one item. Defeating the Nazis turned the sessions of the Bundestag in formality, and the country finally established a dictatorship. The Nazis achieved this intimidation and violence is not supported by the majority of the population.

Enemy at the door

The coming to power of the Nazis — the result of political intrigue that could fail. In 1932, Hitler had power in national elections, and each time was dissatisfied with the result. The best achievement of the Nazis — 37 percent of the vote in the Bundestag in July 1932. The presidential and repeat parliamentary elections in November, the figures were lower: 36 and 33 percent, respectively. Support for the Nazis declined.

In the party leadership have matured fears that come to power by legal means did not succeed. Left a favorable environment. Sympathy for the far right, fueled by the world economic crisis of 1929, meant for Germany the bankruptcy of large companies and unemployment. However, the economy recovered. Radical project of Hitler — the abolition of democracy was in danger of slipping to the margins of German politics.

Trying at any cost to power, Hitler made a bid for those who have already had the power. The Nazi leader gained an ally in the face of right-wing conservative politician Franz von Papen to head the Cabinet on 1 June 1932. The Nazi and the conservator entered into a secret Pact that Hitler became Chancellor and von Papen — his Deputy. I only had to negotiate with the German President Hindenburg, from which depended appointment to the government. Von Papen succeeded and on 30 January 1933, Hitler assumed the post of Chancellor. While it is not considered the strongest, dependent on the will of others figure.

One Fuehrer — one law

Hitler became head of the state as a result of the compromise, but was not going to settle for a share of the power. In Germany was the Nazi creeping coup. Hitler sought unlimited powers, arguing: if not him, then the power will be Communists. The ambitions of the Nazi leader quickly took the form of a bill on emergency powers, under which the head of the Cabinet had the right to legislate, regardless of the opinion of the deputies, and even to bypass the Constitution. To hold a controversial law through Parliament, required a two-thirds majority. Without such support, Hitler convinced Hindenburg to dissolve the Parliament.

By this point Germany had been a decree of the Reich President on the protection of people and state, adopted immediately after the arson. Citizens deprived of the rights to freedom of Assembly and privacy: the campaign of mass searches. The reduction of freedoms by Hitler and Hindenburg was justified by the Communist threat. Continued arrests of the leaders of the Communist party, divert the public opinion, and their background was preparing for a vote on the notorious law on emergency powers of the Cabinet of Ministers.

A meeting of the Bundestag, which Hitler had close to absolute power, took place without the participation of deputies-Communists: they were arrested. The hall is made of several parliamentarians from the social Democrats, which was known that they would vote against. The representatives of the party privately threatened to attack the Nazis. In spite of pressure from moderate leftists still boycotted the law.

Then opponents of the Nazis just outlawed: 14 Jul 1933 in Germany banned all parties except the National socialist. Punished even allies of the Nazis.

In these circumstances played out the final act of a historical drama. Though formally, but Hitler needed the elections to the Bundestag. The vote was held 12 November 1933, and not secret and open: everyone can see who voted how. Paradoxically, but the intrigue still remained. The stormtroopers were caught and intimidated by the opposition, which was suspected of trying to drop in the ballot boxes invalid ballot papers. However, three million ballots were spoiled by the Germans, not wishing for their country of Nazism.

To cheat the devil cannot

Research fellow, Institute of world history, Konstantin Sofronov told RIA Novosti that although the coming to power of Hitler could have been avoided, this event fit into the logic of prior German history. «Already in the 1920s, the social Democrats had a majority in Parliament and therefore in need of partners for the formation of the ruling coalition. Against the background of economic crisis, such a coalition was less durable. Parties could not agree on key issues. And President Hindenburg passed to govern the country on the basis of article of the Constitution, allowed to take decisions without consulting Parliament. This paved the way to Hitler: that, in fact, got on the train that is already moving in the direction of authoritarian Germany», — says historian.

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In his view, the success of Hitler is the result of the benevolent attitude of the German elites underestimated the leader of the Nazis and selfishly hoping to use the accumulated popularity. «Had the illusion that Hitler is easy to control, that is uneducated, a strange man, prone to violence, but at the same time, and rather limited. Unable for example to negotiate at the international level. German politicians such as, say, Alfred Hugenberg, counting is easy to manipulate Hitler. Therein lay the fatal flaw — concludes the expert. — If Hitler had agreed to something less than Concerto, for example the post of Minister, he still could become a pawn in someone else’s game. However, such conditions of the Nazi leader refused immediately and flatly. And getting the Chancery post, Hitler felt the power in his hands, and it was not going to retreat.»